Leslie Rutkowski

Image of Leslie Rutkowski
Norwegian version of this page
Available hours By appointment
Visiting address Gaustadalleen 21 Hus C plan 1 0349 Oslo
Postal address Postboks 1161 Blindern 0318 Oslo


I am currently a Professor of Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology at Indiana University with an adjunct appointment at the Centre for Educational Measurement at University of Oslo. 

Leslie’s research is in the area of international large-scale assessment. Her interests include assessment design, latent variable modelling, and examining methods for comparing heterogeneous populations in international surveys. In addition to successfully completing a Norwegian Research Council grant on developing international measurement methods, Leslie published the edited volume Handbook of International Large-Scale Assessment (Rutkowski, von Davier, and Rutkowski, 2014) with Chapman & Hall. She is also currently writing a text book on large-scale assessment under the Guilford stamp. Leslie serves as associate editor for the Springer journal Large-scale Assessments in Education and as co-executive editor for the Springer book series, IEA Research for Education. Finally, Leslie serves as chair of the PISA Technical Advisory Group and as chair of the NAEP Questionnaire Standing Committee.

Courses taught

  • Covariance structure analysis
  • Multilevel modeling
  • Categorical data analysis
  • Longitudinal data analysis
  • Multivariate statistics
  • Survey Methodology (at UiO)


  • Ph.D., Educational Psychology, 2007, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • M.S., Statistics, 2005, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • B.A., Economics, 2003, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

Positions held

  • 2021 -               Professor of Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology, Indiana University
  • 2018 - 2021      Associate Professor of Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology, Indiana University
  • 2015 - 2018      Professor of Educational Measurement, University of Oslo, Norway
  • 2010 - 2015      Assistant Professor of Inquiry Methodology, Counseling and Educational Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
  • 2007 - 2009      Research Associate, Research and Analysis Unit, IEA-DPC, Hamburg, Germany
Tags: International large-scale assessment, latent variable models, test design, simulation


  • Rutkowski, Leslie; Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Svetina, Dubravka & Rutkowski, David (2022). Multistage Testing in Heterogeneous Populations: Some Design and Implementation Considerations. Applied Psychological Measurement. ISSN 0146-6216. 46(6), p. 494–508. doi: 10.1177/01466216221108123.
  • Rutkowski, David & Rutkowski, Leslie (2021). Running the Wrong Race? The Case of PISA for Development. Comparative Education Review. ISSN 0010-4086. 65(1), p. 147–165. doi: 10.1086/712409. Full text in Research Archive
  • Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David & Liaw, Yuan-Ling (2019). The existence and impact of floor effects for low-performing PISA participants. Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice. ISSN 0969-594X. 26(6), p. 643–664. doi: 10.1080/0969594X.2019.1577219.
  • Svetina, Dubravka; Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Rutkowski, Leslie & Rutkowski, David (2019). Routing Strategies and Optimizing Design for Multistage Testing in International Large-Scale Assessments. Journal of Educational Measurement. ISSN 0022-0655. 56(1), p. 192–213. doi: 10.1111/jedm.12206.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie; Svetina, Dubravka & Liaw, Yuan-Ling (2019). Collapsing Categorical Variables and Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling. ISSN 1070-5511. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2018.1547640.
  • Oliveri, María Elena; Rutkowski, David & Rutkowski, Leslie (2018). Bridging Validity and Evaluation to Match International Large-Scale Assessment Claims and Country Aims. ETS Research Report Series (ETS RR). 2018(1), p. 1–11. doi: 10.1002/ets2.12214.
  • Matta, Tyler; Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David & Liaw, Yuan-Ling (2018). lsasim: an R package for simulating large‑scale assessment data. Large-scale Assessments in Education. ISSN 2196-0739. 6:15(15), p. 1–33. doi: 10.1186/s40536-018-0068-8. Full text in Research Archive
  • Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie & Liaw, Yuan-Ling (2018). Measuring Widening Proficiency Differences in International Assessments: Are Current Approaches Enough? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. ISSN 0731-1745. 37(4), p. 40–48. doi: 10.1111/emip.12225.
  • Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Wu, Yuanyue; Rutkowski, David & Rutkowski, Leslie (2018). Evaluating PISA scales across Chinese economies. Asia Pacific Journal of Education. ISSN 0218-8791. 38(3), p. 432–451. doi: 10.1080/02188791.2018.1491388.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Rutkowski, David (2018). Improving the Comparability and Local Usefulness of International Assessments: A Look Back and A Way Forward. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. ISSN 0031-3831. 62(3), p. 354–367. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2016.1261044.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie (2017). Design considerations for planned missing auxiliary data in a latent regression context. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling. ISSN 2190-0493. 59(1), p. 55–70.
  • Svetina, Dubravka & Rutkowski, Leslie (2017). Multidimensional measurement invariance in an international context: Fit measure performance with many groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. ISSN 0022-0221. 48(7), p. 991–1008. doi: 10.1177/0022022117717028.
  • Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Wild, J. & Burroughs, N. (2017). Poverty and educational achievement in the U.S.: A less biased estimate using PISA 2012 data. Journal of Children and Poverty. ISSN 1079-6126. 24(1), p. 47–67. doi: 10.1080/10796126.2017.1401898. Full text in Research Archive
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Svetina, Dubravka (2017). Measurement Invariance in International Surveys: Categorical Indicators and Fit Measure Performance. Applied Measurement in Education. ISSN 0895-7347. 30(1), p. 39–51. doi: 10.1080/08957347.2016.1243540.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David & Zhou, Yan (2016). Item Calibration Samples and the Stability of Achievement Estimates and System Rankings: Another Look at the PISA Model. International Journal of Testing. ISSN 1530-5058. 16(1), p. 1–20. doi: 10.1080/15305058.2015.1036163.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Rutkowski, David (2016). A call for a more measured approach to reporting and interpreting PISA results. Educational Researcher. ISSN 0013-189X. 45(4), p. 252–257. doi: 10.3102/0013189X16649961.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Zhou, Yan (2015). Correcting Measurement Error in Latent Regression Covariates via the MC-SIMEX Method. Journal of Educational Measurement. ISSN 0022-0655. 52(4), p. 359–375. doi: 10.1111/jedm.12090.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Zhou, Yan (2015). The impact of missing and error-prone auxiliary information on sparse-matrix sub-population parameter estimates. Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. ISSN 1614-1881. 11(3), p. 89–99. doi: 10.1027/1614-2241/a000095.

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  • Steinmann, Isa & Rutkowski, Leslie (2021). The Link between Gender Gaps in Secondary School Enrollment and Achievement.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Rutkowski, David (2016). The relation between students’ perception of InQua and bullying victimization. In Nilsen, Trude & Gustafsson, Jan-Eric (Ed.), Teacher Quality, Instructional Quality and Student Outcome. Relationships Across Countries, Cohorts and Time.. Springer. ISSN 978-3-319-41251-1. p. 103–120.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie (2016). Causal inferences with cross-sectional large scale assessment data. Large-scale Assessments in Education. ISSN 2196-0739. 4.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie (2016). Introduction to special issue on quasi-causal methods. Large-scale Assessments in Education. ISSN 2196-0739. 4, p. 1–6. doi: 10.1186/s40536-016-0023-5.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie (2016). A look at the most pressing methodological issues in international assessment. US National Academy of Education.
  • Rutkowski, Leslie & Rutkowski, David (2016). International surveys, educational ISBN: 9780470670590 DOI: 10.1002/9780470670590.wbeog949. Wiley.

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Published Sep. 3, 2015 2:10 PM - Last modified Sep. 21, 2022 2:00 PM