Programme EELC8

Online conference: EELC8 will be livestreamed using Zoom. Below you will find the full conference programme. Please note that updates may occur. A downloadable/printable version of the EELC8 programme is also available.

Part of colourful logo with people. Illustration by colourbox

Full programme

All times are in GMT+2 / CEST. Our current time is:

Day 1

Programme 24 September
Time Activities
10:00–10:30

Welcome and how we work, by Ass. Prof. Joke Dewilde (chair), Prof. Rita Hvistendahl (Head of Department, ILS), Prof. Elizabeth Lanza (Director of MultiLing) and Prof. Karin Tusting (convenor Linguistic Ethnography Forum)

Zoom location: Keynote session

Video from session

10:30–11:30

Keynote 1: Quentin Williams: Being with Multilingualism: Deep Hanging Out with "Language Technicians" in a Post-National South Africa

Description below

Zoom location: Keynote session

This session will be interpreted to sign language.

Video from session

11:45–13:15

Panel 1

Session
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Zoom location: Room 1

Panel 2

Session
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Zoom location: Room 2

This session will be interpreted to sign language.

Paper Session 1

Session
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Zoom location: Room 3

Paper Session 2

Session
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Zoom location: Room 4

Paper Session 3

Session
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Zoom location: Room 5

This session will be interpreted to sign language.

13:15–14:00 Lunch
14:00–15:00

Keynote 2 : Christine Hélot: Going Back to School: A Critical and Reflexive Ethnography of Multilingual 
Children’s Literacy Practices in a Freinet Classroom in France
Description below

Zoom location: Keynote session

This session will be interpreted to sign language.

Video from session

15.00–16.00

Poster session
Location: Padlet

  • Exploring Teachers’ Support Culture and Cognition in an L2 Chinese Study-Abroad Program, by Chun-Mei Chen
  • Dance between Men: Borders and Open Spaces in the Collective (De)construction of Masculinity, by Jaime Crisosto
  • Collaboration with Multilingual Staff Towards More Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in Superdiverse Preschools, by Katrine Giæver, Elena Tkachenko and Marcela Montserrat Fonseca Bustos
  • The Creation of a Linguistically Diverse Sitcom through Improv, by Annelies Kusters
  • What Can Linguistic Ethnography Contribute to Practice-Led Research in Organisations? by Anne Murphy
  • Confounding Factors in Identifying Multilingual Communication Needs: Tertiary Educational Institutions as Places of Study and of Work, by Shelley Taylor
  • Across National and Regional Borders. Sociolinguistic Analysis of Hungarian Migrants in Catalonia, by Gergely Szabó

 

16:00–16:30 Break
16:30–18.00

Panel 3

Session programme
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Zoom location: Room 1

Paper Session 4

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Zoom location: Room 2

This session will be interpreted to sign language.

Paper Session 5

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Zoom location: Room 3

 

Paper Session 6

Session programme below

Zoom location: Room 4

18:00–18:30

LEF Annual General Meeting

Zoom location: Room 1

Day 2

Programme 25 September
Time Activities
10:00–11:00

Invited talk & discussion 1

Language Ideologies in the Classroom: From Research to Practical Intervention

Julia Snell (University of Leeds)

Description below

Zoom location: Room 1

Invited talk & discussion 2

Linguistic Ethnography in the Nursery

Line Møller Daugaard (VIA University College)

Description below

Zoom location: Room 2

Invited talk & discussion 3

Co-designing for Social Change across Institutional and Organizational Boundaries: Principles and Methods

Mariëtte de Haan (Utrecht University) and Alfredo Jornet Gil (University of Oslo)

Description below

Zoom location: Room 3

This session will be interpreted into sign language.

11:15–12:45

Paper
Session 7

Session programme
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Zoom location: Room 1

This session will be interpreted into sign language.

Paper Session 8

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Zoom location: Room 2

Paper Session 9

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Zoom location: Room 3

Paper
Session 10

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Zoom location: Room 4

12:45–13:30 Lunch
13:30–16:15

Panel 4

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Zoom location: Room 1

Paper Session 11

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Zoom location: Room 2

This session will be partially interpreted into sign language.

Paper Session 12

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Zoom location: Room 3

Paper
Session 13

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Zoom location: Room 4

This session will be partially interpreted into sign language.

16:30–18:00
  • Keynote 3: Bente Ailin Svendsen: Citizen Sociolinguistics and Ethnography – Different, but the Same? Critical Perspectives
    This session will be interpreted to sign language.
  • Farewell

Description below

Zoom location: Keynote session

 

Programme changes

The following papers have been cancelled: 

  • Paper session 4: Exploring Far-Right Ideologies and ‘Redpilled’ Identities on 4chan.org’s 'Politically Incorrect' Discussion Board, by Wesley Willson
  • Paper session 10: Linguistic Tensions and Negotiations: The Unexpected Complexity of Backstage Bad News Writing and Text Production, by Barbara Pizzedaz

Support

For support during the conference you can contact our team by email.

You can also visit our EELC8 technical support site for helpful guides.

Keynote Presentations

Christine Hélot

Going Back to School: A Critical and Reflexive Ethnography of Multilingual 
Children’s Literacy Practices in a Freinet Classroom in France

My main concern in this contribution is to question the unequal norms of language in French classrooms and to ask how we can redesign educational spaces so that language does not constitute a barrier to full and equal participation (Piller, 2016). First, I will address the obstacles to carrying out ethnographic fieldwork on multilingualism in French classrooms, where the prescriptive and hierarchical language regime silences minority language speakers and invisibilizes their plurilingual competence. Second, I will explain my choice of ethnographic monitoring as a paradigm for researching multilingualism in support of social justice in one primary classroom of 8-year-olds in a poor suburb of Strasbourg where the teacher has been engaged in Freinet/institutional pedagogy for 20 years.

Then I will describe a multiliteracy research project designed collaboratively between the teacher and the researcher. Based on observations, field notes and feedback discussions with teacher and pupils, I will attempt to analyse and interpret the children’s lived experiences of using their family languages in class to learn to read and write. I will conclude with questions relating to the impact of the researcher’s presence in the school and whether the ethnographic monitoring of the multiliteracy project carried out in one class did counter unequal and exclusionary multilingual practices at the level of the school.

Quentin Williams

Being with Multilingualism: Deep Hanging Out with "Language Technicians" in a Post-National South Africa

The challenge of contemporary South Africa is that of building a post-nation of postracial equity in a fragmented world of a globalized ethical, economic and ecological meltdown. For some time now, young multilingual speakers have sought to contribute to such an endeavour through practices of reinvention and the ontological refashioning of multilingualism in order to challenge linguistic fixities in the present and advance an internalization of new epistemologies of language for a non-racial South Africa.

In the first part of this talk, I take this background into consideration by outlining a post-national communication framework that will help us depart from colonial, apartheid experiences of multilingualism, and towards ones that account for the redesigning of new multilingual futures. This framework, I argue, will enrich linguistic ethnography research since it considers the development of new forms of relationality and practices of reinventing language. I set on this path to further argue that our tasks as linguistic ethnographers are not to only capture, adequately, the links between new forms of multilingualism, but to pay attention to the creative processes of language reinvention and emerging relationalities among multilingual speakers.

In the second part of this talk, I move on to demonstrate the post-national communicative framework I outlined by reporting on a case study of language reinvention by “language technicians” (multilingual speakers who seek to reinvent language). For the last ten years, I´ve hung out deep with multilingual Hip Hop artists, deeply invested in the creative performance of multilingualism, and the reinvention of language. Immersed in the local Hip Hop culture of Cape Town, and with the methods of ethnographic fieldwork I deployed, I report on how I have followed a process of deep hanging out to document the emergence of Afrikaaps language technicians advancing the reinvention of Afrikaans for a non-racial, multilingual South Africa. On the one hand, I will demonstrate how the Afrikaaps language technicians employ a critical historical process in an attempt to reinvent Afrikaans by highlighting the unique, creative and dynamic stylizations of being with multilingualism instead. As they demonstrate what it means to undergo an ontological refashioning of multilingualism, these technicians employ a bottom-up process of selection, codification, and elaboration to remix multilingual voices and recast marginal forms of Afrikaans from the periphery to the centre. On the other hand, and much more consequential, their attempts to retool Afrikaans into Afrikaaps imply that to reinvent Afrikaans both as a target of ‘change’ and as a medium for social transformation holds great benefits for multilingual speakers in South Africa.

In the final part of this talk, I propose a trajectory for linguistic ethnographic research along the principles of deep hanging out: that is, to advance egalitarian-methodological methods to study the work of language technicians in global North and South societies. This trajectory, I argue in closing, could offer important inroads into what it means to be with multilingualism today. Such a trajectory, I will further suggest, could also open up meaningful dialogue around bottom-up notions of relationality and the reinvention of language across global North and South research contexts.

Bente Ailin Svendsen

Citizen Sociolinguistics and Ethnography – Different, but the Same? Critical Perspectives

Recently, Citizen Science (hereafter, CS) and its offshoots, such as Citizen Sociolinguistics, have gained momentum (e.g. Golumbic et al., 2017; Kasperowski et al., 2017; Rymes & Leone, 2014; Svendsen, 2018). CS involves citizens in doing research and has at least a 200 year-long tradition within the natural sciences, dating inter alia back to Linné’s engagement of lay people in his work on the typology of animals and plants in the mid-18th Century. Citizen Sociolinguistics is defined as engaging lay people in carrying out sociolinguistic research, in collecting, registering, analyzing, and interpreting data relative to the levels of citizen involvement and collaboration, research questions and design of the CS-project (Svendsen, 2018, p. 139). CS is particularly highlighted as a feasible method for collecting quantitative or big data (e.g. Lewenstein 2016).

In this paper, I argue that CS is a feasible method to collect qualitative data as well and allows us to collect data in situations and from people that might otherwise be difficult to access. As such, Citizen Sociolinguistics resembles ethnographic methods, particularly the use of field workers. Based on a Norwegian CS-project where all pupils in a Norwegian school were invited to be language researchers, this paper presents some of the data the citizens collected and discusses them in light of today’s language education policy in Norway. Moreover, it discusses the relationship between Citizen Sociolinguistics and linguistic ethnography and the advantages and challenges of Citizen Sociolinguistics.

The paper addresses recent political calls for democratization of research, where CS and crowdsourcing are highlighted as preferred methods (e.g. Memorandum by the White House: Executive Office of the President, 2015; EU draft for FP9). The paper discusses whether CS can contribute to such democratization processes, as well as to solve some of the grand societal challenges of today.

Invited talk & discussion

Julia Snell

Language Ideologies in the Classroom: From Research to Practical Intervention

Linguistic ethnographic analyses of classroom data help us to understand how language attitudes and ideologies manifest in situated interaction and how these influence teachers’ practice, pupils’ identities, and learning processes. But what role can this research play in challenging (indeed changing) negative attitudes and misconceptions about language that often circulate in the educational domain?

For example, in the UK, there has been increased focus on the link between regional dialect and educational underachievement. Some schools have attempted to ‘ban’ the use of regional dialects in pupils’ speech with the (erroneous) assumption that this will improve literacy rates (e.g. Fricker 2013, Williams 2013). Such high-profile attempts to police nonstandard speech in schools have reinvigorated UK linguists’ interest in tackling dialect prejudice. Some linguists have continued to make the longstanding argument that nonstandard dialects are as systematic, logical and rule-bound as standard varieties (following Labov 1969; Trudgill 1975), while others have advocated for a ‘repertoire’ approach that foregrounds the social and interactional dynamics that give rise to nonstandard forms (Snell 2013). Nonetheless, negative perceptions of nonstandard dialects persist in educational contexts, and recent work has criticised linguistic research for being ineffectual in bringing about social change (Block 2014; Lewis 2018).

In this session, I will give a 30 minute talk in which I reflect critically on the role of the linguist in educational debates and suggest possible avenues for future work, focusing, in particular, on how linguistic ethnographic work on language diversity in the classroom might connect with educational research on talk-intensive pedagogies. This will be followed by guided discussion of key questions in smaller groups (using the zoom breakout room function) and, finally, a joint general discussion of the ideas, issues and questions that emerge. For example, we will ask:

  • How can we use linguistic ethnographic analyses of classroom data to challenge teachers’ assumptions and implicit biases without alienating them?
  • How do we speak to teachers in ways that they can relate to and find useful, while also remaining committed to nuanced theoretical accounts of complex linguistic practices and ideological processes?
  • How can we provide descriptions and guidelines that are helpful for educational practitioners without reifying categories such as ‘standard language’ and associated power structures?

Line Møller Daugaard

Linguistic Ethnography in the Nursery

Nurseries, daycare centres and kindergartens constitute important societal institutions – and both interesting and challenging fields of linguistic ethnographic exploration. The point of departure for this talk & discussion is one of two often quoted tenets in linguistic ethnography:

“Analysis of the internal organisation of verbal (and other kinds of semiotic) data is essential to understanding its significance and position in the world. Meaning is far more than just the ‘expression of ideas’, and biography, identifications, stance and nuance are extensively signalled in the linguistic and textual fine-grain” (Rampton 2007:585)

The talk & discussion explores what this entails when linguistic ethnography takes places among toddlers and young children in nurseries and other early childhood institutions. Investigating early childhood institutions poses a series of challenges to the linguistic ethnographer: How do we negotiate access to young children’s everyday life in the institution? How can we as linguistic ethnographers engage in dialogue with toddlers and young children? How do we make sense of young children’s communication? And how can we represent young children’s communicative repertoires in meaningful and adequate ways when writing up our linguistic ethnograhies?

Theoretically, the talk & discussion is inspired by Whyte’s conceptualisation of the toddler as ”a competent yet vulnerable communicator of and with many voices” (White 2011:63) and of ’toodler voice’ as a plural concept including ”any sound, gesture, movement or word that has the potential to be recognized by others in social exchange” (White 2011:64). Using empirical material from a recently finished linguistic ethnography on language practices in three Danish nurseries as a case, we will discuss potentials and challenges in doing linguistic ethnography in early childhood settings, focusing especially on representational issues arising from toddler language and communcation.

The talk & discussion will be conducted in real time on zoom and will consist of a brief introduction to the theme followed by guided discussion of representation of interactional data from the nursery in smaller groups (using the zoom breakout room function) and finally a joint general discussion of linguistic ethnography in early childhood settings.

Mariëtte de Haan and Alfredo Jornet

Co-designing for Social Change across Institutional and Organizational Boundaries: Principles and Methods

In a context of growing challenges to democracy as well as to the environment, there is an increased need for forms of inquiry that not only inform but also foster social transformation and innovation, which often demands crossing institutional boundaries and engaging in trans-disciplinary collaboration. The purpose of this workshop is for participants (from junior to senior scholars and practitioners) to learn about, practice with, and jointly develop principles and methods aimed at facilitating collaborative inquiry across institutional boundaries, with a particular focus on—but not limited to—collaborations between schools and out-of-school institutions and organizations, such as cultural centers and museums, industry stakeholders, and non-governmental organizations.

The workshop takes as point of departure the notion of social design experiments (SDE), an interventionist form of research that uses democratizing, collaborative design as a means to both foster and analyze social transformation across social and institutional boundaries. SDEs build upon participatory ethnography and design-based approaches and adds a focus on social change and social justice. In SDE, participants with different backgrounds and from different organizations join together to address collective objects of concern in their community.

In the workshop, the organizers will present the approach’s premises and concepts by grounding them in empirical materials from two research projects aimed at social change: a project focused on transforming teaching practices to deal with issues of polarization in The Netherlands, and a project focused on transforming the role of schools in fostering climate action and sustainability. These materials will be mobilised in hands-on activities in which workshop participants will have the chance to explore concepts and tools for engaging in collaborative design aimed at remediating social inequity and injustice.

Programme for panels and paper sessions

Day 1

Panel 1

Language Practices and Participation in Early Childhood: Linguistic Ethnographic Perspectives from Denmark and Spain

Organisers: Line Møller Daugaard, Nieves Galera and Rianne Helena Slingerland

  • Babies’ Multimodal Participation in Affective Practices at Home in four Spanish Contemporary Families, by Nieves Galera
  • Afternoon Snacktime Languaging in the Nursery, by Line Møller Daugaard
  • Kindergarten as a Place for Languaging, by Rianne Helena Slingerland

Panel 2

Linguistic Ethnography and Organisations: Developing the Dialogue

Organisers: Karin Tusting, Robert Sharples and Anne Murphy

  • Introduction, by Karin Tusting, Robert Sharples and Anne Murphy
  • Linguistic Ethnographic Research on Modern Corporations: an Expanding Research Agenda, by Tom van Hout and Els De Maeijer
  • Organizational Change and School Culture, by Emre Engin
  • Linguistic Ethnography Meets Organizational Studies: Language and Institutional Logics, by Piotr Wegorowski

Paper Session 1

Chair: Constanze Ackermann-Boström

  • Youth Identity, Basque Identity?, by Miren Artetxe Sarasola
  • Participation in Situated Meaning-making: Disentangling Languaging, Identiting and Processes of Access, by Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta and Giulia Messina
  • Out of Context: Studying Young People’s Discursive Reconstructions of Learning in Everyday Life, by Antonio Membrive and Alfredo Jornet Gil

Paper Session 2

Chair: Sarah Degano

  • Då Är Jag Happy: Languaging and Translanguaging at Workplace Meetings, by Carla Jonsson
  • Incorporating the Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape into LE: How and Why, by Peter Brannick
  • Language Practices in a Multilingual English Classroom: Student Attitudes to Monolingual, Bilingual and Multilingual Practices, by Marie Källkvist, Henrik Gyllstad and Pia Sundqvist

Paper Session 3

Chair: Giovanna Battiston

  • Communication for Equal Healthcare: Transcultural Healthcare Educators’ Practices, by Kathrin Kaufhold and Karolina Wirdenäs
  • Constructing Health Literacy in Norwegian Social Welfare Institutions, by Ingvild Badhwar Valen-Sendstad
  • Researching Multilingually, Collaboratively, Responsively: Insights and Challenges in Decolonising Linguistic Ethnography, by Colin Reilly, Nancy Kula and Tracey Costley

Panel 3

Developing Utopian Methodologies for Sustaining Hope and Embracing Change from Within Education

Organisers: Anna Pauliina Rainio and Antti Rajala

  • Playworlds as Utopian Methodologies: Investigating Adult-Child Joint Play Spaces as a Form of Radical Inclusion, by Anna Pauliina Rainio, Robert Lecusay, and Beth Ferholt
  • Breaking the Climate of No Alternatives: An Utopian Analysis of Compassion and Care in Early Childhood Education, by Antti Rajala, Moises Esteban-Guitart and Michael Cole
  • Addressing Social and Political Polarization through Transformative Methodologies in Education, by Alfredo Jornet Gil and Mariëtte de Haan

Discussant: Professor Ola Erstad

Paper Session 4

Chair: Guri Bordal Steien

  • Cancelled: (Exploring Far-Right Ideologies and ‘Redpilled’ Identities on 4chan.org’s 'Politically Incorrect' Discussion Board, by Wesley Willson)
  • Whiteness and the Politics of Participation in Indigenous Language Learning in Argentina, by Lauren Deal
  • Participants’ Capabilities Realisation within a Deaf Multiliteracies Project: A Linguistic and Lthnographic perspective, by Eilidh McEwan

Paper Session 5

Chair: Rickard Jonsson

  • Ethnographic Reflections on the Different Roles of English in Flemish Higher Education - Economic English and Economics Taught in English, by Kirsten Rosiers, Julia Valeiras-Jurado and Geert Jacobs
  • Language, Academic Labour and the Making of a Professional in Late Capitalism, by Yu Shi
  • Monitoring Ethical Decision-Making in Classroom Linguistic Ethnography, by Ingrid Rodrick Beiler

Paper Session 6

Chair: Stavroula Tsiplakou

  • The Role and the Expertise of the Interpreter in Three Different Institutional Domains, by Marta Kirilova and Martha Karrebæk
  • An Ethnographic Exploration of Informal Interpreters on Construction Sites, by Morwenna Fellows
  • The Fragmented Narrative: Co-construction of Asylum Narratives in Interpreter-mediated Asylum Interviews, by Zoe Nikolaidou, Hanna Sofia Rehnberg and Cecilia Wadensjö

Day 2

Paper Session 7

Chair: Samantha Goodchild

  • Language Diaries in the Study of Language Use and Language Choice: The case of Flemish Sign Language and Scottish Gaelic, by Maartje de Meulder and Inge Birnie
  • Re-framing (Sign Language) Interpreting Studies as Linguistic Ethnography, by Jemina Napier
  • Access, Acceptance and Assurance: Negotiating Researcher Identities in Linguistic Ethnographic Fieldwork, by Disha Maheshwari

Paper Session 8

Chair: Marie Källkvist

  • Translanguaging at School: Students’ Perspectives on Using Multiple Languages, by Sarah Degano
  • Translanguaging as an Ideological and Pedagogic Response to Superdiversity: The case of Japanese as a Heritage Language (JHL) Schools in England, by Nahoko Mulvey
  • Language and Communication: Performing Identities in the Macanese Community in Macao - A Preliminary Study, Linda Lam Virecoulon Ho

Paper Session 9

Chair: Judith Purkarthofer

  • German Diaspora in Sweden: Migration and Multilingualism in Stockholm, by Anna Mammitzsch
  • Investments in Heritage Language: A Comparative Case Study of Turkish Speakers in Sweden and France, by Berrak Pinar Uluer

Paper Session 10

Chair: Karin Tusting

  • Voice and Textual Identity in Marketing Practice, by Giovanna Battiston
  • Cancelled: (Linguistic Tensions and Negotiations: The Unexpected Complexity of Backstage Bad News Writing and Text Production, by Barbara Pizzedaz)
  • Evangelical Discourse and Communication in the Eye of a Participant Observer, by Magdalena Grabowska

Panel 4

New Explorations in Multilingual Stockholm

Organisers: Constanze Ackermann-Boström and Rickard Jonsson

  • Orten as a Category used to Define Who’s Who in a Local School Context in the Stockholm Region, by Mirjam Hagström
  • Speaking Ortensvenska in Prestigious Spaces: Contemporary Urban Vernacular and Social Positioning in an Inner-City Stockholm School, by Mari Kronlund
  • “A THIIIEF!”: Stylization, Humor and Representing the Other at a Detention Home for Young Men, by Anna G. Franzén and Rickard Jonsson
  • “Sometimes I wonder whether I am allowed to learn Meänkieli” – Linguistic Ideology and Identity Construction of Young Tornedalians in Stockholm, by Constanze Ackermann-Boström
Discussant: Quentin Williams

Paper Session 11

Chair: Rafael Lomeu

  • The Fear of the Slippery Slope: Conscious Suppression of Modality in Family Language Policy, by Annelies Kusters, Maartje De Meulder and Jemina Napier
  • Teasing and Playfulness in Translingual Family Interactions, by Ragni Vik Johnsen
  • Listening Carefully: The Student Experience as the Impetus and Means of Social Change, by Andrea Leone-Pizzighella

(Break)
Chair: Rafael Lomeu

  • Critical Literacy Despite Diglossia? Data from Cypriot Schools, by Stavroula Tsiplakou
  • “I know it’s not as simple as that, but ... that’s what the law says”: Conflict Talk in “Translating” the Law to Clients in Asylum Legal Advice Provision, Judith Reynolds

Paper Session 12

Chair: Robert Sharples

  • The Promise of an ‘Internationalisation’ to Come? Towards the Transformation of Racial and Language Ideologies in Contemporary University Life, by Luke Holmes
  • Political and Linguistic Borders among Romeika Speakers in Cyprus: Language Contact, Language Shift and Language Maintenance in Politically Sensitive Areas, by Elena Ioannidou
  • Language Across Time and Space: Following UN-refugees from the DRC to Norway, by Guri Steien

(Break)
Chair: Magdalena Grabowska

  • Linguistics in Drama: Exploring Collaborative Working Processes in Drama Rehearsals, by Andrea Milde
  • Arts-based Methods to Understand Multilingual Lived Language Experience of Children, by Judith Purkarthofer

Paper Session 13

Chair: Seyed Hadi Mirvahedi

  • Sanctioning Body: Text, Embodiment, and Affect in Instructional Practices, by Alfredo Jornet Gil and Ivana Guarrasi
  • Cosmopolitan London: Talk about Space and Place in the Interactional Construction of an International Community of Spanish Speakers, by Hannah King
  • Semiotic Landscapes from Emic and Etic Perspectives, by Anja Pesch and Hilde Sollid

(Break)
Chair: David Poveda

  • Tuning in: Toward Sensory, Attuned Sociolinguistic Ethnographies, by Sabina Vakser
  • “Our nation trying for a rebirth right now”:  Transformative Walking through Crimean Tatar ‘spaces of otherwise’, by Natalia Volvach

Illustration by Colourbox.

Published Dec. 6, 2018 10:59 AM - Last modified Sep. 25, 2020 1:25 PM