List of abstracts

Abstracts are listed in alphabetical order after last name of first author. Individual abstracts can be accessed interactively by clicking on the presentation in the programme.

Am I an effective EAP teacher? Students’ perceptions and teachers’ reflections
Mandana Arfa-Kaboodvand and Saida Akbarova

Most if not all teachers try to be effective; however, the characteristics and requirements that lead to their being considered effective can depend on the context they work in. Considering this, we conducted a study to determine the characteristics of effective Academic English teachers as seen by the students and EAP lecturers in a university in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Our study consisted of two parts. Upon completing the first part, we managed to design a teacher appraisal form to be filled by the students. This form is to examine the students' perceptions of the characteristics of effective EAP teachers. The second part was designing a research-based teacher self-reflection form to be filled by the teachers at the end of each term to help them assess their pedagogic competence and their performance in their classes. In this presentation, we aim to discuss the steps we took to prepare the teacher appraisal forms, and the teacher self-reflection forms. Some of the key points we ha ve learned from this study may be of interest to a wider audience.

“In year 8, the students are eager to learn- it’s a new language! But in year 9, their motivation drops…”
Sigrunn Askland

Many Norwegian students struggle with learning Spanish, and the more advanced level they reach, the more demotivated they become. Many students start learning Spanish in year 8, but give up already before they reach upper secondary school. As all students attending general studies in upper secondary school must learn a foreign language in addition to English, many end up attending Spanish classes with very low motivation, and they may not make an effort to do the extra work it takes to learn a foreign language. The result is that they struggle with the subject, dread speaking Spanish and are anxious about having an oral exam in this subject. In this study, we applied a fivestep motivation method in two Spanish classes in upper secondary school. In this approach, the students identify 1) what is important for me to learn speaking in Spanish, 2) what do I already master, 3) what prevents me from speaking Spanish, 4) what do I need to focus on and 5) what specifically will I do to succeed with speaking in Spanish. This approach is much in line with the new curricula that are currently being implemented in Norway, which focus on life mastery skills. The students are to identify and find solutions to problems, and deal with emotions and thoughts, and this is exactly what we do when applying the fivestep motivation method. The results presented are based on the students’ reflections, in addition to evaluations filled in after the sessions.

Researching the learning of language and literature in the 21st century. Challenges of going beyond 20th century nomenclature
Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta

Contemporary mobilities across and within Northern and Southern places-spaces call for according visibility to the global circulation of discourses with the specific intent of (re)viewing conceptual “webs-of-understandings” that mark and perpetuate the continuing naturalization of North-centric hegemonies and enabling ways of widening dialogical apertures in the Educational Sciences. This paper offers theoretical reflections vis-à-vis recent (re)discoveries of the performative dimensions of “languaging” in North-centric places, highlighting how these conceptualizations appropriate what is “normal diversity” and “normal languaging” in Southern places while continuing to exclude South-centric conceptual framings. It also calls attention to the compartmentalized disciplinary domains in which such discussions take place. Such theorizing can be understood as a Second Wave of Southern Perspectives that center-stages identity-diversity and linguistic-diversity across Nor thern and Southern places-spaces, highlighting the need to globalize dialogues within the Educational Sciences and Language Studies. Inspired by a more overarching “turn towards turns” (Bagga-Gupta 2019) in general, and linguistic-, boundary- and decolonial-turns more specifically, this paper thus center-stages issues related to the need for destabilizing North-centric knowledge regimes and engaging analytically with global-centric alternative epistemologies where Southern framings and scholarship are brought into conversations. Here challenges of researching children and adults’ “ways-of-being-with-words” across digital-analogue institutional-everyday life settings in the 21st century appear to be imprisoned in 20th century educational conceptual framings. Bagga-Gupta, S. (2019). Learning Languaging matters. Contributions to a turn-on-turn reflexivity. In S. Bagga-Gupta, A. Golden, L. Holm, H. P. Laursen & A. Pitkänen-Huhta (Eds). Reconceptualizing Connections between Language, Literacy and Learning. Rotterdam: Springer.

The role of Norwegian in CLIL instruction
Jonas Bakken

This paper will discuss the role of Norwegian in bilingual instruction where English is the medium of instruction. While studies on CLIL classrooms have mainly focused on language use in terms of the target language, comparatively few studies have examined the effects of and perspectives on language use in the main language of schooling. The main aim of the ETOS project is to evaluate whether the bilingual education, instructed partly in Norwegian and partly in English, is conducted in such a way that students are offered proper education in all subjects, not only concerning the English language, but also their competence in Norwegian as the main language of schooling. This discussion is of particular relevance as students in CLIL classes in lower secondary schools in Norway are required to take their exams using Norwegian in all other school subjects than in English and foreign languages. This paper will therefore elaborate on students’ competence in Norwegian when attending CL IL instruction, and present examples of how they show their competence in Norwegian in their notes from class, essays and tests.

Same or different? Comparing language proficiency in French, German and Spanish in Swedish lower secondary school
Camilla Bardel, Susan Sayehli and Malin Ågren

In Sweden, second foreign languages (SFL) are introduced after English in the 6th year (age 11-12) and French, German and Spanish are the most often studied SFLs. Despite their differences, these SFLs share an identical curriculum. Furthermore, learners are expected to attain the same proficiency level at the end of year 9. The aim of this paper is to examine whether pupils in year 9 do in fact attain a comparable proficiency level as measured by means of a C-test across languages. 144 pupils (Spanish n= 41, German n= 44 and French n= 59) distributed over 15 Swedish compulsory schools took a C-test as part of a larger test battery. When scored on a binary scale the data indicated that French learners proficiency was significantly lower than German and Spanish learners proficienc which did not differ. When scored on a more fine-grained 6-grade scale that ranked morphological and lexical errors as more severe than spelling errors, the difference between language groups disappeared. These results suggest that similarities and differences in learners proficiency across languages vary depending on the linguistic features studied and on the measuring scale that is used. Furthermore, we show that French spelling in particular is an area of difficulty for Swedish learners. We argue that these observations have implications for both teachers and researchers in the SFL context.

Forskjeller i oppbyggingen av ordforrådet i to begynnerlæreverk for tysk som fremmedspråk
Karen Bauer og Gerke Doetjes

Elever som lærer tysk i Skandinavia møter språket sjeldent utenfor undervisningen, og det betyr at elevene i stor grad er avhengige av lærerens og skolens valg av språklige kilder når de gradvis skal bygge opp fremmedspråket. Læreverket skolen bruker er en viktig kilde, og det er derfor avgjørende at læreverket har en god oppbygning og byr på et rikt språk. I dette bidraget undersøker vi språket i to ulike læreverk for tysk som fremmedspråk, et norsk- og et tyskprodusert læreverk for begynnere. Begge læreverkene har en kommunikativ tilnærming og er bygget opp rundt ulike, grunnleggende temaer, som f.eks. familie, skole, mat og fritidsaktiviteter. Vi konsentrerer oss på oppbyggingen av ordforrådet: Hvilke ord legger læreverkene opp til at elevene skal lære, og hvordan – og hvor ofte – møter elevene disse ordene? Forskning på ordlæring viser at nye ord må bearbeides flere ganger i ulike sammenhenger før de kan feste seg i det mentale leksikonet, men d et er uklart hvor ofte. Det er også uklart hvilke ord som er viktige å lære i begynneropplæringen: Lister med et forhåndsdefinert ordforråd f.eks. for CEFR-nivået A1, som tidligere har vært i bruk, er i dag omdiskutert. Vår studie viser at de to læreverkene til tross for likheter i oppbyggingen skiller seg med hensyn til hvilke ord elevene møter, hvor ofte de møter disse ordene og hvordan de jobber med ordene. Vi konkluderer med å diskutere mulige konsekvenser av disse forskjellene for tyskundervisningen.

Marked and unmarked translanguaging in accelerated, mainstream, and sheltered English classrooms
Ingrid Rodrick Beiler

Translanguaging has gained prominence as a way to understand multilingual practices and draw on these in additional language teaching, but questions remain regarding its application in various educational contexts. This study investigates the significance of translanguaging across instructional settings by comparing discourses of markedness in accelerated, mainstream, and sheltered classes taught by the same teacher, where both linguistically majoritized and minoritized students were learning English as an additional language. Data are drawn from four months of linguistic ethnographic fieldwork at a Norwegian upper secondary school and include field notes, video and screen recordings, texts, language portraits, and teacher and student interviews. I found that translanguaging was marked in two largely separate ways: (1) bilingual English-Norwegian practices were more frequently marked in accelerated and mainstream settings, in relation to students’ perceived English proficiency l evel; whereas (2) translanguaging drawing on minoritized languages was more consistently marked in all three settings as a deviation from majority linguistic practices, thus distinguishing majoritized (English-Norwegian) from minoritized translanguaging. Implications include the importance of analyzing translanguaging in relation to locally salient discourses and contextualizing pedagogical interventions in larger struggles for justice.

Språköverskridande undervisningssamarbete på olika stadier i en tvåspråkig kontext
Marina Bendtsen, Bjørklund, Katri Hansell and Johanna Still

We present a three-year action research -oriented project where researchers together with teachers in ECEC and basic education in a bilingual city in Finland collaborate to develop, document and disseminate innovative pedagogical methods in cross-language practices and language-aware teaching. The umbrella project entails four different levels of education, ranging from early childhood education to upper secondary school, and brings together teacher teams from Finnish- and Swedish-medium educational settings to cooperate and teach across languages and curriculum. Although the development project focuses on language-aware teaching, the teachers involved in the project are not language teachers. The data presented in this study predominantly consists of audio- and video recordings of individual teacher teams’ and teacher-researchers’ collegial planning and preparation of cross-language and cross-curricular activities, the execution of planned activities, and reflective and evaluative post discussions. Across the four levels of education, the researchers have, in their data-driven analyses inductively identified three activity-related issues that (re)occur in the collected data, i.e. security, content, and language. In this presentation, we aim to illustrate how the three different aspects interplay in the mind-sets of the teachers. We showcase how the teachers orient towards their students’ communicative needs and willingness to communicate in activities involving both new peers and new languages. Vi har kontaktat arrangörerna och kommer att presentera på svenska. Därför svarar jag 'ja' på frågan nedan.

CLIL instruction in Norway and Sweden: Challenges and benefits
Lisbeth M Brevik

Content and language integrated learning (CLIL), where another language (most often English) than students’ first language is partly used as the medium of instruction is nowadays fairly common in many countries around the world, Norway and Sweden being no exceptions. The colloquium will feature a presentation of some of the most interesting findings in studies that exist and present four projects in the two countries. The aim is to identify similarities and differences in the implementation of CLIL in Norway and Sweden, student learning outcomes, as well as potentials for collaboration beneficial for CLIL in both theory and practice.

Pronunciation instruction in French-as-a-foreign language classrooms
Altijana Brkan

The aim of this research was to investigate amounts and methods of French-as-a-foreign-language pronunciation instruction in a communicative language learning context in Norway. The data involved 45 French lessons from six schools video-recorded during the last two years of lower secondary school. The video-recorded lessons were analysed for pronunciation instruction. Results indicated that, in all the classrooms: (1) episodes of pronunciation instruction accounted for 0% to 10% of all language-related instruction episodes, (2) despite the emphasis on segmentals and suprasegmentals in pronunciation teaching literature, explicit teaching of segmental and suprasegmental features of speech was neglected by the observed teachers. Theses findings might be used to address concerns regarding the role of pronunciation instruction in French-as-a-foreign language teaching and to define factors that may account for the difficulty of making pronunciation instruction an integral part of langu age teaching.

Foreign language pronunciation instruction in a communicative language teaching context: amounts, practices and beliefs
Altijana Brkan and Eva Thue Vold

The aim of this research was to examine three important components of foreign language pronunciation instruction and the connections between them: amount, actual practices, and teachers’ beliefs. The data consisted of 45 video recorded lessons in French-as-a-foreign-language in six lower secondary schools in Norway and semistructured interviews conducted with the same teachers whose instruction was previously video-recorded. The video-recorded lessons were analysed for amount and actual practices of pronunciation instruction and the interviews were analysed for teachers’ background in and beliefs about phonetics and pronunciation pedagogy. Results indicated that: (1) on average, pronunciation instruction accounted for a very small part of the teaching time (less than 2%), although there were important variations between the classrooms (from 0% to 10%), (2) despite the emphasis on segmentals and suprasegmentals in pronunciation teaching literature, explicit teaching of segmenta l and suprasegmental features of speech was rare in the recorded material, (3) there is a need for more training in and knowledge of phonetics and pronunciation pedagogy. These findings might be used to address concerns regarding the role of pronunciation instruction in foreign language teaching and to define factors that may account for the difficulty of making pronunciation instruction an integral part of language teaching.

På rett vei eller på bærtur? Hva krever LK20 av den profesjonelle spansk- og fremmedspråklæreren?
Debora Carrai and Xavier Llovet

I løpet av året blir den nye norske læreplanen, LK20, ferdig implemetert, og det er viktig å stille kritiske spørsmål om hva denne fagfornyelsen innebærer for fremmedspråkfaget. Det første viktige spørsmålet er hvilke kompetanser som vil prioriteres i den nye læreplanen? Et annet er hvordan ser fremmedspråklærerne på disse endringene? Og sist, men ikke minst, i hvor stor grad vil disse endringene ha noen innvirkning på skolepraksisen i fremmedspråklasserommene? I vårt innlegg innleder vi med en analyse av læreplanendringene og drøfter hvilke krav disse vil stille til fremmedspråklærere, og da spesielt hvilke kompetanseområder som vil måtte styrkes. Innlegget presenterer en tolkning av formuleringer i læreplanen og de implikasjonene disse kan innebære for profesjonen. Deretter vil vi legge frem resultatene fra en kvantitativ undersøkelse hvor 60 spansklæreres har så langt kommet med sine synspunkter om den gamle og den nye læreplanen. Undersøkelsen begynte i 2019 og avsluttes i 2020, og de foreløpige resultatene viser en generell følelse av usikkerhet og uforutsigbarhet når det gjelder deres forståelse av læreplanen og om hva det vil kreve av egen kompetanse. Med bakgrunn i felles læreplan og læreplanmålene, vil funnene fra denne undersøkelsen kunne bidra til å styrke vår forståelse av i hvilken grad fremmedspråklærernes forventer at læreplanen vil føre til reelle endringer i deres hverdagspraksis. Det vil også kunne belyse hvilke udekkede behov for kompetanseheving som må dekkes.

Digital and inclusive challenges for Norwegian and German Learning and Education (DINGLE): A Pilot Study
Chilla, Solveig; Doetjes, Gerard; Vogt, Karin; Filk, Christian; Gillespie, Astrid; Odenwald, Sarah; Tsagari, Dina; Yearwood, Tanyasha

Adequate education for Europe is ensured, inter alia, through language teaching for all. However, the demands and implementation of inclusive teaching diverge greatly, since legislation and the implementation of joint schooling are regulated differently between and within countries. The DINGLE project is conceived as a preliminary study for the conception of a theoretical framework for digitally enhanced inclusive foreign language teaching in Europe, which is to ensure the quality of teaching and research in the long term and in line with the requirements of the Council of Europe Recommendations on Teaching and Learning.

DINGLE aims at examining the variable tasks of (future) foreign language teachers in two different European countries. DINGLE addresses questions in connection with inclusion, heterogeneity and diversity in order to create the empirical basis for an applicable, multidimensional, modular, university-based framework that adheres to principles of media didactics. The poster presents preliminary conceptualisations of a collaborative and research-based transfer of knowledge and the empirical analysis of the universities' own conditions for successful (foreign) language teaching in Norway and two different parts of Germany, Schleswig-Holstein and Baden-Württemberg.

Our pilot study will make it possible to examine which aspects a theoretical framework for digitally enhanced inclusive foreign language teaching should include in order to enable self-determined, personalised, adaptive learning and to remove obstacles in dealing with digital learning formats.

How do teachers construct adolescent English language learning in the 21st century?
Lynell Chvala

Globalization has changed the conditions for learning English (De Costa, 2016), and learning today targets more than linguistic competence, requiring flexible pedagogies that respond to local ecologies. This article examines teacher pedagogies in conceptualizing adolescent learning and how they traverse majority, as well as “foreign”, language contexts (Macken-Horarik, 2014; Murray & Mullebeir, 2019) and considers “deep learning” for adolescent learners today. Data consist of 36 interviews with 12 teachers of learners aged ca. 13 to 15 in a large district in Norway. Qualitative analysis revealed conceptualizations building on functional language competence and foregrounding: a) expanding adolescent identities and worlds, b) content learning, and c) cultural heritage. At the outer reaches lay cultural sensitivity for global citizenship. Teachers emphasize orality, everyday experience and the mediation of identities and expanding worlds. Expanding worlds, however, may challenges teachers’ own identities when English is detached from native-speaking anchors. English as a global language is thus described as: a) stress-inducing, b) far removed from everyday life, c) overly abstract and d) too academic for adolescents. De Costa, P. I. (2016). Reconceptualizing Language, Language Learning, and the Language Learner in the Age of Globalization. In The Power of Identity and Ideology in Language Learning: Designer Immigrants Learning English in Singapore (pp. 13-32). Cham: Springer International Publishing. Macken-Horarik, M. (2014). Making Productive Use of Four Models of School English: A Case Study Revisited. English in Australia, 49(3), 7-19. Murray, M., & Muller, A. (2019). Some key terms in ELT and why we need to disambiguate them. ELT Journal, 73(3), 257-264. doi:10.1093/elt/ccz014

A Playful Approach to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching: Gamification in the French Classroom
Caroline Cruaud

Play is known to be an important way of learning, especially for younger children. It is also recognised for older learners of foreign language (FL) as mentioned in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). However, the FL learning and teaching literature say very little on why to use play for learning, and on how and what type of play we are talking about. In order to investigate playful learning in the classroom, a four-year design-based research project has been conducted where a gamified application for French-as-a-foreign- language was developed in collaboration with teachers and used for a whole year in two mixed-level classes (A2 to B1) of an upper-secondary school of the Oslo region. The Action- Oriented Approach (AOA) presented in the CEFR has been the background for the development of the application, but also of the pedagogical tasks and learning situations it offers. The experience of both teachers and learners with the gamified practices have been studied through the analysis of ethnographical video data, interviews and data collected from the application itself. Findings on playfulness, engagement and learner autonomy have been presented in previous studies. This paper will focus on the language learning side of the project and look at the role of AOA in the design of the application. In addition, themes of the students’ production of multimodal documents prompted by the gamified tasks and their use of language (foreign, first or additional) while working on the tasks might be included.

On Epistemological Issues in Technologically Infused spaces. Reflections on Virtual Sites for Learning
Giulia Messina Dahlberg

The nature of virtual-physical continua, including their entanglements are explored by discussing how virtual sites for (language) learning emerge in practice, in policy and in research. Augmenting our arguments through a series of illustrative examples, we argue that learning constitutes the constant and ubiquitous ontological dimension of human existence. These examples focus upon - virtual sites (both as they have been explored in research and how they have been (re)presented in policy) as the loci for identifying answers to what is real and what is virtual, including their boundaries, - the myth of technology as educational panacea, and - the challenges that the dematerialization of our everyday wired lives brings to the future of the research endeavor. A “mind as action” theoretical framing with relevance to contemporary learning is discussed, the implications of such conceptual challenges are outlined and policy envisaging’s from the mid-1990s are compared to more recent promises of the “online revolution”.

Negotiating minority language resource in Norwegian writing instruction for migrant students
Joke Dewilde

Being able to write in society’s dominant language is important for social mobility and democratic participation. The aim of this paper is to construct new knowledge about teacher-student interaction with regard to migrant students’ minority language resources, practices and experiences in writing instruction. The study is a linguistic ethnography of a class of thirteen migrant students and their two Norwegian teachers in a large upper secondary school in Norway. The findings support previous research where majority and minority resources dominate in the front region and back region (Goffman, 1959) respectively. I argue for the pedagogical potential of the middle region (Meyrowitz, 1990), where teachers and students can negotiate minority resources and ultimately push them to the front region of writing instruction.

Development of linguistic complexity in the writing of Spanish as L3 in a Norwegian school context
Eli-Marie Drange

This paper presents a study of the development of linguistic complexity in the writing of Spanish as L3 in a Norwegian school context. The main aim of the study is to benchmark the development of linguistic complexity in the writing of pupils from they start with Spanish as L3 at the age of 13 in Lower Secondary School to they finish Upper Secondary School at the age of 19. The data used for this study is extracted from the TRAWL-corpus of learner language, that consist of a collection of pupil texts from Norwegian schools written as part of pupils’ normal schoolwork. To be able to benchmark the complexity development, the pupils’ texts will be selected from three stages: Year 8, Year 11 and Year 13. The texts from the first reference point will contain language production from novice levels of Spanish as L3, while the production at Year 13 will be from an intermediate to advanced level. To be able to benchmark developmental levels of Spanish as L3 from novice to intermediate learners, it is necessary to adapt existing linguistic complexity measures to the Norwegian context and to novice L3 learners.

Teachers’ beliefs about reading instruction in multilingual primary school classrooms
Birgitta Ljung Egeland

This presentation targets teachers’ beliefs about reading as language practice including reading homework in multilingual primary school classrooms. Based on data from a case study, the aim is to investigate reading instruction as language practice in a culturally and linguistically diverse classroom. We investigate the reading practice as well as the homework practice from a multilingual perspective. The theoretical framework of the study is The Literacy Engagement Framework (Cummins, 2016), and the concept of teacher beliefs (Fives & Gills, 2015; Kalaja et al., 2015). The study was conducted in a year 3 class, where about 50 percent of the students had immigrant backgrounds. For the present study, we rely on interview data (N=1) and classroom observations (N=4). Nexus analysis was applied in the analysis. Findings show that the reading instruction is varied and thoroughly planned by the teacher. In the classroom, the students read the homework in groups of three or four, which means that they get individual feedback on their reading and understanding. Findings also reveal that the teacher’s beliefs are based on solid knowledge in general reading instruction theories and long experience, but also on a monolingual norm. Parents are involved and receive information about how to support their children even if they do not understand Swedish themselves. The teacher expresses high expectations on parental involvement, but low expectations on their ability to be a real resource in their children’s education. Finally, we discuss implications for teaching, teacher education and future research.

Is comprehensibility enough…? – On assessing young learners’ EFL proficiency
Gudrun Erickson and Jörgen Tholin

The current study is set in a school system where, since long, language syllabuses have a clearly communicative approach. This is reflected in the national tests of English (EFL), comprising parts focusing on reception as well as speaking and writing. The tests are generally well received by students and teachers. Most students achieve good results, with international surveys confirming high levels of proficiency. Although teachers’ attitudes to the national EFL tests are mostly positive, some teachers consistently question the standards, especially for a Pass. This is most noticeable in lower secondary school, especially in year 6 when students receive their first grades. What is often considered a problem is the perceived leniency regarding formal aspects of language, mostly concerning written production, but also other tasks where active language use is required. The role of the national tests is advisory, albeit intended to provide substantial support for teachers’ decisions on final grades. In the current study, results from the national EFL tests 2013-2019 are compared to final grades. Here, the year 6 results stand out; the proportion of test grades identical to final grades are similar to year 9, but year 6 teachers more often award a lower final grade as compared to their year 9 colleagues. To better understand underlying reasons, year 6 teacher questionnaires from three years (n=500) have been analyzed, in particular focusing on comments regarding standards. Results will be discussed in relation to the communicative approach and also to possible implications for pedagogical practice.

Students’ Experiences of Speaking in a Foreign Language with Native Speakers in 360° Videos
Elin Ericsson

Speaking, one of the four central skills in foreign language education, is considered the most difficult skill to learn. Immersive technologies with conversational agents enable contextual possibilities for language learning. By interacting orally in the target language, learners engage in dialogues with native speakers in everyday life scenarios through 360° videos. The aim of the study is to investigate whether this kind of virtual reality (VR) tool has a potential of being motivational and useful for practising speaking skills. The study explores Swedish 13- to 15-year-old students' (N=41) experiences of using a VR tool with 360° videos during German lessons. Designed as an intervention, the study combines data from questionnaires, logbooks, interviews and user metrics from the system. Reported student reflections and ratings of experiences were analysed by thematic analysis. The results show varied students’ experiences between stimulating, easy and fun speaking activities to boring and monotone exercises. Individual differences are identified regarding persistence to keep up motivation when feeling interrupted or not understood. The students report being challenged solving tasks in interactive everyday life scenarios, learning new words, practising pronunciation, conversation and listening skills. The study indicates that speaking with native speakers in 360° videos is experienced as motivational and useful in regard to the content of everyday life scenarios providing possibilities for practising speaking skills. Results also indicate that the students feel better prepared for everyday life conversations. The study further implicates the importance of pedagogical framing for meaningful embedment of this VR-based technology. Keywords: Conversational agent, foreign language learning, immersive technology, language tool, speaking skills, 360° videos, virtual reality.

Language policy, language rights, and education for immigrants in Denmark
Eduardo Faingold

This paper offers an exhaustive analysis of laws and regulations enacted by the Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and the Danish Parliament that protect the language rights of the Danish-speaking majority and hinder the language rights of immigrants from early childhood education through elementary school and high school (Faingold, 2020; forthcoming). With the exception of the German minority in South Jutland, Denmark has no large indigenous minorities living in its territory but, since the 1960s, has seen a steady influx of immigrants and refugees, mainly from non-Western (mostly Muslim) countries. Since the late 1990s, growing negative feelings towards immigration in Denmark have become associated with the growing number of Muslim immigrants and their descendants, leading to the passing of a wide array of laws and regulations with provisions that hamper the language rights of non-Western immigrants while promoting Danish language and culture in the educational system from kinder garten to high school, disregarding the languages and cultures of immigrant children. Denmark’s pre-school and school programs and practices have been very successful in teaching immigrant children Danish, e.g., language testing and intervention (Bundgaard & Gulløv, 2006; Horst & Gitz-Johansen, 2010). However, Danish laws, regulations, and educational practices disregard the cultural and linguistic experiences of immigrant children and greatly restrict or outright ban mother tongue education for immigrant children from non-Western countries. References Faingold, E. D. (forthcoming). Language rights and the law in Scandinavia: Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. Faingold, E. D. (2020). Language rights and the law in the European Union. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. Bundgaard, H., & Gulløv, E. (2006). Children of different categories: Educational practice and the production of difference in Danish day-care institutions. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32, 145-155. Horst, C., & Gitz-Johansen, T. (2010). Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark: monocultural hegemony and counter positions. Intercultural Education, 21, 137-151.

Addressing teacher and learner needs in multilingual ELF contexts through continuing professional development of teachers
Dina Tsagari, Mona Evelyn Flognfeldt, Lynell Chvala, Kirstin Joanna Reed and Therese Tishakov

This presentation reports findings of a needs analysis among teachers and learners of English in Norway, conducted in the framework of the Erasmus+ funded project entitled “ENRICH” (“English as a Lingua Franca Practices for Inclusive Multilingual Classrooms”). The findings were used to develop a high-quality international Continuing Professional Development (CPD) infrastructure which aims to promote teacher competences in multilingual pedagogy and empower English Language Teachers (ELTs) to integrate the current role of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) in multilingual classrooms. Research from Norway and beyond states that ELTs need to increase their competence of multilingualism to meet the needs of the multilingual classroom and to make a paradigm shift towards multilingualism. ELF, as a multilingual means of communication, plays a key role in this effort. The findings of the needs analysis illustrate: a) the beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes of EFL teachers in Norway regarding the multifaceted dynamics of the global spread of English and its impact on their own teaching practices, and b) the perceptions secondary-school learners in Norway have about English used as a global language and the possibility of integrating this awareness in formal EFL teaching. The results are interpreted through recent research in multilingualism and ELF, with the aim of informing the development and delivery of the online CPD course. We hope the presentation facilitates for discussions regarding innovative design and content of professional development for teachers in multil ingual contexts.

Which relationship between vocabulary and language proficiency in the writing component of a FL proficiency test? A case study
Francesca Gallina, Sabrina Machetti and Paola Masillo

The relationship between lexical competence and language proficiency has been largely investigated, especially in L2 writing (Crossley et al. 2011, Stark 2016, Zareva et al. 2005). This relationship is operationalized in the construct of the CILS – Certification of Italian as a Foreign Language (University for Foreigners of Siena). In C1 and C2 level exams vocabulary is assessed through a cloze test, and speaking and writing tasks. For the extended production, raters use an analytic rating scale, including a subscale on vocabulary range and control. This paper discusses data driven by an ongoing validation study (Machetti, Purpura 2018), examining the cloze test and writing tasks performed by a sample of 100 candidates. The paper takes into consideration the concurrent validity, correlating the scores of the writing tasks with the results of lexical indices (lexical density, variety, sophistication). Expected results: significant correlation between vocabulary knowledge and language proficiency, as in proficiency tests of ESF. Crossley S. et al., 2011, Predicting the proficiency level of language learners using lexical indices, in Language Testing 29(2): 243-263. Machetti S., Purpura J. E., 2018, Examining Claims Underlying the B1 Level CILS Exam, paper presented at the Assessing World Languages Conference II, University of Macau, November 1st, 2018. Stark M., 2016, Exploring the relationship between automated analyses of linguistic features and human ratings of test-taker performances on an ESL writing task. MA dissertation. Lancaster University. Zareva A. et al., 2005, Relationship between lexical competence and language proficiency, in Studies in Second Language acquisition, 27, 4: 567-595.

Attitudes towards language-internal variation among Norwegian as an additional language teachers
Hailey De Korne and Anne Golden

While Norway has been praised for an ideology of tolerance towards language-internal variation (Trudgill 2002), scholars have also pointed out that dialectal and orthographic variation within the Norwegian speech community does carry socio-political significance and can be a source of discrimination and negative stereotyping (Svendsen & Røyneland 2008). This study asks how the presence of multiple spoken dialects and two official written norms is viewed and negotiated within the context of Norwegian as an additional language (NOA) education. NOA teachers play an important role in shaping the language ideologies of adult learners of Norwegian who will go on to join the Norwegian speech community in increasing numbers. We will discuss the perspectives of NOA teachers working with young adult and adult learners, and their reported practices in relation to spoken and written variation. Drawing on an on-line survey carried out with NOA teachers across different regions of Norway in 20 19, we analyze the factors that influence if and when teachers express tolerance towards diversity, and if and when they view it as a barrier to successful learning of Norwegian. Additionally, their attitudes towards spoken and written diversity are compared to their self-reported classroom practices. The results illustrate a range of attitudes and reported practices through which NOA teachers negotiate variation in Norwegian. We conclude with discussion of the importance of NOA educational practice within broader language planning and policy efforts in Norway, and the need for closer scrutiny of which attitudes and practices are common in NOA classrooms.

Teaching and learning a foreign language in a multilingual school context – a plurilingual approach to foreign language instruction in the Danish public school
Annette Søndergaard Gregersen

Teaching and learning a foreign language in a multilingual school context – a plurilingual approach to foreign language instruction in the Danish public school aimed at fostering a more to inclusive pedagogy How can foreign language instruction in the Danish public school subjects English, French and German take into account students’ linguistic and cultural diversity, including students with a different L1 than Danish? Plurilingualism is a relatively new focus area for the foreign language school subjects, English, French and German, in the Danish public school. These subjects have traditionally taught the target language from a national context. As such, foreign language instruction has commonly focused on building vocabulary while assuming a homogenous (Danish) starting point in the student body. This paper presents a plurilingual and multicultural approach to foreign language education developed within the context of the Danish public school, based on foreign language, second language and multicultural education research. With examples from a recently completed research and development project focused on incorporating plurilingual approaches this paper exemplifies how the plurilingualism students bring to the foreign language classroom plays a significant role for a more transnational culture pedagogy and for the students’ target language development.

Combining ecological validity with experimental control: A vocabulary intervention study in six secondary school EFL classrooms in Sweden
Henrik Gyllstad, Pia Sundqvist, Källkvist and Sandlund

Although research suggests cognitive and social benefits of drawing on L2 learners’ whole language repertoires (Cummins, 2017), and vocabulary experts emphasize the merit of L1 translation equivalents to establish initial form-meaning mappings (Schmitt, 2008), classroom-based research on what vocabulary learning practices are effective in multilingual classrooms is scarce. We present results from an intervention study comparing the effects of three week-long learning conditions: English Only (E/monolingual); English and Swedish (E&S/bilingual); and English, Swedish and any Other language(s) (E&S&O/multilingual), on vocabulary learning. The Participants were 127 learners (aged 15–16) from six secondary school EFL classrooms in Sweden. Teaching materials for each of the conditions comprised (1) a text with 12 controlled English target words, (2) vocabulary exercises, and (3) vocabulary lists in either EO, E&S, or E&S&O. We employed a counter-balanced, within-subject design, featuring a Pretest (36 words); 3 x treatment; Immediate Posttests (3 x 12 words), and delayed posttest (36 words) 8-10 weeks after the treatments. The tests targeted meaning recall knowledge (expressed in any of the participants’ languages or even drawings). Gain scores from participants with complete data sets (n = 74) were analysed using mixed effects modelling. These showed that the English-only condition (E) was almost exclusively the lowest, and statistically significantly so for three classes, with the remaining three classes scoring very similarly on the three conditions. On the whole, the results can be taken to support pedagogical translanguaging, where the use of L1 translation equivalents facilitates initial form-meaning mapping better than L2 definitions.

The disruptive effect of technology on communication and meaning-making in the language classroom: a complex systems theory approach
Regine Hampel

This presentation uses a complex systems theory approach alongside sociocultural understandings of learning to explore the potential of new technologies to transform education (Säljö 1999; Wertsch 2002), particularly in the context of language learning and teaching. Although technology is embedded in students’ lives today, there is an assumption by many that its use is inconsequential, an assumption that has been critiqued (e.g. Levy 2000; Hampel 2003; Thorne 2003) but that persists. So how can we ensure that educators understand how these new digital technologies are impacting on communication and meaning-making and align our language learning and teaching practices so they realize the potential that the online media offer and encourage a new learning ecology? To attempt an answer to this question, I will be using complex systems theory (Larsen-Freeman and Cameron 2008) as a useful heuristic for framing my argument, conceptualizing the language classroom (in the widest sense) as an ecosystem consisting of different interacting parts and thus allowing for a focus on the changes that language education has undergone over the past decades as a result of the introduction of new technologies. Focusing on communication modes, interaction patterns, and the positioning of the language learner in relation to the world I provide evidence for the disruptive effect of the new media on traditional language learning approaches and settings and for a resulting phase shift that is reshaping language education today. I highlight the implications of this phase shift for language teachers, for institutions and policy makers, and for research.

Abstract Paper #5: Religion as a content subject in CLIL instruction
Kirsten Marie Hartvigsen

This paper elaborates on one of the content subjects in the ETOS project, namely religion. Little research exists on the content subjects in CLIL instruction. While there is a growing number of studies that focus on the interplay between content and language learning, researchers have argued that large areas of CLIL teaching remain under-researched, especially content aspects of the instruction. When evaluating content aspects of the CLIL classes, we examine how students' language resources are used (or not used) in the subject, and whether students have developed high competence in English and in Norwegian related to the school subject religion. The main discussion will be on whether the CLIL instruction is conducted in such a way that students are offered proper education in the subject.

Modern language continuation in Northern Ireland: young people’s decision-making and perceptions of learning, teaching and assessment
Leanne Henderson

International evidence shows that the language learning trajectories of students in Anglophone countries compare poorly with trends in contexts where English is not the first language of most people. In every European country a period of mandatory language learning is provided for at a policy level. In the United Kingdom this period is of shorter duration than the average across Europe and Northern Ireland has the weakest policy provision within the UK. It is often suggested that languages uptake in the UK is understandably poorer than elsewhere in Europe because students in those countries are enthusiastic to develop their skills in English because of its status as a global lingua franca. However, whilst the figures confirm that a majority of young Europeans are indeed learning English they are also learning at least one language other than English. Our research looks at the ways in which decision-making about learning a modern language beyond the compulsory phase are made in Northern Ireland. Existing evidence shows that improving language learner competence relies on learning experiences being of suitable quality and provided in adequate quantities. This paper uses a cross-sectional sample of young people to explore the relationship between language continuation and learner accounts of in school experiences of language learning, teaching and assessment. Our results provide much needed evidence of how individual decisions, and school-, system-, and society- level factors influence continuation to GCSE and A-Level (the main qualifications taken at age 16 and age 18).

How can reading and working with foreign language literature play a role in promoting 21st century skills?
Hild Elisabeth Hoff

One of the most pivotal issues in educational research in recent years has been this: how may the aims and methods of education be redefined in order to promote learners’ ability to meet the challenges and opportunities of our contemporary world? The 21st century has brought about a number of fast-paced societal changes which have consequences for what we perceive as knowledge and the way in which we make sense of the world around us. To a larger extent than before, ingenuity and the ability to navigate conflict, complexity and ambiguity are seen as imperative in order to avoid “easy-fix” resolutions to human predicaments. As a consequence, new curricula and policy documents emphasise such aspects of learning as problem-solving, critical thinking and in-depth learning, cross-cultural communication and collaboration, creativity and innovation as well as the development of a comprehensive set of literacies. Drawing on the findings of my recent PhD project in English didactics, this paper discusses the inherent potential of literature in the foreign language (FL) classroom in the light of such concerns. It posits that reading and working with FL literary texts can play a valuable role within the School of the Future, arguing that the learners’ encounter with this type of text may promote their ability to navigate certain challenges which are often associated with intercultural communication in the 21st century.

«I would like to sound like an Englishman or American instead of an insecure Norwegian»
May Olaug Horverak

In a pilot study we carried out as part of the project «A systematic approach – the fivestep motivation method», we found that many students are concerned with becoming better speakers of English. Many students feel nervous about not speaking English fluently enough, or sounding «English», and this may be a problem in a culture where English is a very popular language which many students master perfectly well. In this study, we have applied the fivestep motivation method in a year 1 English class, general studies, in a Norwegian upper secondary school with a focus on developing speaking skills. In this approach the students identify 1) what is important to me when learning to speak English, 2) what do I already master? 3) what hinders me from speaking English, 4) what do I need to focus on and 5) what specifically will I do to keep this focus. The students discuss the questions in class, and give examples to each other about how they could work with improving their speaking skills, and then they write anonymous individual answers to the five questions in books that the teacher collects at the end of the session. The next session, the teacher sums up the anonymous reflections, and the class discuss what they could do about possible obstacles to succeed with becoming better speakers of English. The results presented here are partly based on the students’ reflections from the sessions and partly on students’ evaluations of how the approach works for them.

The Role of Literature and Culture in Language Education - Literature as a sustainable approach to teach intercultural competence
Sabina Ivenäs

Increased migration puts great demands on teacher’s education when it comes to the subjects Swedish and Swedish as a second language. Previous research has noted that “the lack of intercultural competence may cause misunderstandings and therefore create a distance to people with another cultural background” (Borgström & Graviz 2016). By viewing the reading of literature as a humanitarian and pedagogical practice in combination with an intercultural perspective, I argue that literature may work as a sustainable method for teaching intercultural competence within the subjects Swedish and Swedish as a second language. Literary texts not only open windows to new worlds, times, geographical areas and perspectives but also address universal issues and existential questions which are also discussed in textbooks used in teacher’s education. In exploring both what we can learn from literature and how it is taught, I provide examples from literary works and textbooks. This material is analyzed through a content-based and qualitative text analysis based on the didactic questions: What, Why, How and Whom? Furthermore, my reading applies an intercultural perspective as I wish to combine existential questions raised from literature such as “who am I?” and “who are others?” with the intercultural questions “who are others?” and “who am I in relation to them?”, all valuable questions in the teaching context.

Student (dis)engagement in English as second language tutoring sessions
Christine Jacknick

Tutorial discourse has its own distinctive interactional dynamics in which ordinary conversation can be transformed into an institutional type of talk. Given the dual nature of tutoring as informal talk between “peers” and pedagogical interaction between an expert and a novice, the current study set out to investigate how participants navigate flexibly in and out of different participation frameworks, negotiating their roles both as peers and as teacher and student. More specifically, the study focuses on how tutees display their (dis)engagement with these potentially changing participation frameworks (i.e., ordinary conversation vs. pedagogical talk) in the context of English as a second language (ESL) tutoring. While most discourse analytic research into tutorial interaction has drawn from one-on-one sessions, this study includes not only tutoring dyads but also multi-party tutoring interaction, including one tutor and several students. The study reveals how various semiotic modalities (i.e., talk, gesture, gaze, body orientation, instructional materials) are deployed by tutees to display (dis)engagement, and how these resources facilitate second language (L2) learning and intersubjective understanding. The data come from a corpus of 15 tutorial sessions (totally 18 h) video-recorded at an urban community college in the United States, involving one English native-speaker tutor and seven nonnative-speaker tutees whose native languages are Bangla, French, Russian, Spanish, Thai and Ukrainian. The study has important implications for L2 pedagogy in an under-researched setting (i.e., community college) and also for understanding participants’ engagement framework as a collaborative accomplishment.

Adult beginner students ́ perceptions of teacher written feedback on writing in Swedish as a secondlanguage
Liivi Jakobson

This study investigates how L2 beginner level students perceive written feedback from teachers onsamples of their writing. It centers on beginner learners (of which very little research exists) andcovers two broad areas of feedback: Focus and Manner. Focus refers to the kind of areas theteachers concentrate on in their comments, e.g. content, while Manner refers to different ways ofdelivering feedback, e.g. suggestions. The data was collected from a web-based course in Swedishfor immigrants in an online Learning Management System. A questionnaire was used for this studywhere the students evaluated feedback categories on a Likert scale and thereafter, ranked the samecategories. Ranking, where different feedback categories are related to each other, has not beenfound in previous studies on feedback in the field of second language research. The results showthat the students take feedback seriously. A large majority of students chose feedback on grammaras their first priority. They generally valued all feedback manners, but clearly preferred specificpraise and specific criticism. I then discuss the conclusions and pedagogical implications based onweb-based learning contexts. In particular, I emphasize the importance of establishing a dialoguebetween students and teachers which enables an orientation towards new understanding. 
Keywords: adult beginners, feedback, Swedish as a second language, perceptions, writing

Teaching definiteness and indirect anaphora to Polish students of Swedish: three perspectives
Natalia Kołaczek

Definiteness in Swedish is seen as a complex category and indirect anaphora seems particularly difficult, especially for students whose L1 lacks articles, like e.g. Polish. In my presentation I look upon indirect anaphora in Swedish from three perspectives: students’, teachers’ and researchers’ on the basis of my research conducted among Polish students of Swedish at Adam Mickiewicz University in Pozna?. The students’ perspective shows how Polish learners of Swedish use indirect anaphors in their interlanguage. It seems namely that they recognize indirect anaphora for meronyms but have more problems with phrases whose interpretation requires knowledge of the outside world. The teachers’ perspective focuses on three popular textbooks used in the Swedish as a foreign language classroom: Rivstart, Mål and Svenska utifrån that concentrate mainly on the noun form formation and not form choice. Anaphoric definiteness appears frequently for the introduction of new structures, while indirect anaphoric definiteness is marginalized, even though such phrases are more frequent in natural language. The researchers’ perspective gives a glimpse of many different typologies of definite phrases and their possible usefulness (or uselessness?) in teaching definiteness and indirect anaphora in the Swedish as a foreign language classroom. References: Ekerot, L. J. (2011). Ordföljd, tempus, bestämdhet. Malmö: Gleerups. Ko?aczek, N. (2018). Bestämdhet och indirekta anaforer i svenskan ur främmandespråksperspektiv: en studie av polska studenters svenska. Pozna?: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickewicza. Unpublished doctoral disseration. Schwarz, M. (2000). Indirekte Anaphern in Texten: Studien zur domänengebundenen Referenz und Kohärenz im Deutschen. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.

Abstract 1: Relieving anxiety through collective efforts and individual reflections - a multiple-case study from vocational classes
Gerd Martina Langeland

Many students who choose vocational studies in Norway do this because they have better practical skills than theoretical skills, and many of these students even dread theoretical subjects. For this group of students, English is one of the more challenging subjects, partly because the requirements are really high in the curriculum and in exams, and partly because they struggle with understanding English and dread speaking out loud. In this study, we investigate some cases in classes where many of the students struggle with anxiety for speaking in English. We look at how working with the fivestep approach in class, both through discussions and individual reflections, influence the students’ development. Learning to cope with stressful situations is one of the skills students need to learn, and in the new curricula in Norway, there is specific focus on the need to develop life mastery skills. The approach outlined in this study is one example of how one can integrate strategies for mastering life in language learning contexts. The fivestep method builds among others on Antonovsky’s health-promoting theory, stating that in order to cope with stress, it is important that one develops a sense of coherence. This means that one finds different situations comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. If this is the case, one develops resilience to deal with stress, such as speaking a foreign language one does not feel confident in, which is what we aim for when applying the fivestep motivation method.

Colloquium: Virtual Sites as Spaces for Learning Language and Literature
Ylva Lindberg

Interrogations regarding evolving languaging, including literary practices in digital-analogue-virtual-real continuums are center-staged in this colloquium, in order to problematize established norms in didactics, and further research regarding the digitalization processes in school. The colloquium is anchored in the Communication, Culture, and Diversity (CCD) milieu, and engages with the capacity building among teacher educators to prepare the next generation of teachers for the diversity of contemporary schools. With a multidisciplinary perspective on language and literature as key mechanisms for culturally situated meaning-making, this colloquium engages with languaging and literary skills for learning in a digitalized and globalized era.

English-language education at tertiary level: between low- and high-tech, Uzbekistan
Liliya Makovskaya

The status of English in academia as language of international communication requires high and multimodal student proficiency. The goal of this colloquium is to discuss a student survey conducted at five universities in Czech Republic, Israel, Italy and Uzbekistan, and evaluate the role of CALL in boosting student autonomy. A questionnaire we designed in 2019 focused on the students’ assessment of various formats of CALL; a new survey was developed in 2021 to verify changes in attitudes. Our analyses will consider institutional contexts (modes of instruction, learner goals, exposure to English beyond class settings), as well as the sociolinguistic situation in each country. English is the medium of instruction at the international university in Tashkent (Uzbekistan). There are two English-learning programs: “Academic English”, a core year-long module for first-year students, and “English for Academic Success”, an optional module for second-year students. “Developing Professional Identity” is another core year-long module, with a focus on communication and soft skills, delivered to first-year students. All around the campus students have constant access to the university Wi-Fi that requires log-in. A new Learning Management System was presented during the March 2020 lockdown and is now actively used for online classes. Module materials (handouts, audio material, video lectures and seminars, quizzes, coursework description, announcements, and additional sources) are available here and are downloadable any time. The students access them via direct log-in to the university platform or a university mobile application developed two years ago. The recorded versions of all lectures and seminars are also available. Every classroom is equipped with a PC (connected to the Internet) and a projector, which allows using PPT and/or showing video material during lessons. All learners can check word meaning, search for material and/or do quizzes online during lessons. Despite all these opportunities, only some students download the material as usually one student per group shares it via a Telegram group they create at the beginning of each semester. However, online learning mode has changed some of their habits as they are now less reluctant to use online material during lessons, and actively scan QR codes that provide access to these materials and quizzes.

Historical Grammar and the Teaching of Language Proficiency: The Example of Russian and German
Nikita Mikhaylov and Gudrun Brundin

The study explores whether there is a place for historical linguistics in a 21st century modern language classroom by summarising the common experience within subjects Russian and German. Though these two belong to different branches, Slavic and Germanic respectively, both are fusional languages with complex inflection patterns. In that respect, teaching basic language proficiency and grammar of both Russian and German have a lot in common, as a whole number of irregularities in morphology and syntax can be adequately explained by means of referring to the historical changes in the respective languages. The research draws on the actual experience of teaching Russian and German at Swedish higher educational establishments. The analysis of the existing study materials within the subjects shows that the textbooks, used in language proficiency classrooms, as well as grammar reference books tend to ignore any sort of historio-linguistic insights. In the meantime, the teachers interviewed during the project, attest to explaining certain language phenomena from the diachronic perspective when teaching courses, outside the subject of language history. Those interviews allow establishing the common problematic spots in the language structures, which can be made more accessible for the students’ understanding by means of historio-linguistic commentary. Another empirical source for the research are questionnaires distributed among the students of Russian and German that reflect their attitudes to various methods of teaching grammar, of which the application of historical linguistics is a recurring tool.

A data-led reflective model for evaluating presentation skills in English: The affordances of a mobile video-tagging tool
Olcay Sert, Asuman Aşık, İpek Kuru Gönen and Paul Miller

This study investigates the affordances of a mobile video tagging tool (VEO) that generates visualized performance data which was used in the evaluation of presentation skills in English language classrooms. The data consists of 35 video-recorded presentations that were annotated synchronously by the instructor of an “Effective Communication Skills in English” course in a higher education setting in Turkey. Using a digital evaluation grid that aims to assess fluency, accuracy of pronunciation and grammar, vocabulary use, signposting, physical movement and orientation, and gestures, the students received immediate feedback based on visual analytics generated by the mobile app. The students then were asked to reflect on their own performances, and were also asked to comment on the affordances and limitations of this data-led reflective model designed to enhance their presentation skills in English. Informed by grounded theory, the qualitative data that come from (1) reflective w ritings and (2) students’ reported perceptions of the affordances of the tool were qualitatively analyzed using constant comparison method by two raters. The analytic procedure included constant comparison of each and every communication unit until sub-categories were formed, and 995 communication units were identified. Analyses of reflective writings showed negative self-evaluations of mainly language use, followed by affective factors while the video-tagging tool was found to be very beneficial by the learners, mainly in enabling them to notice their strengths and weaknesses in presenting in English, and facilitating effective feedback. The results show that this data-led reflective presentation model that draws on performance analytics can be beneficial for learners as they can identify points of development. Implications for classroom use and future quantitative research will be given.

Critical Perspectives on Multilingual Education: Luxembourgish Primary School Students’ Lived Experience with German Language Education Policies
Sarah Muller

With student populations around the world becoming increasingly diversified, language education policies and teaching pedagogies need to be scrutinised as they play a key role in students’ access to meaningful learning experiences. In Luxembourgish primary education, German is used as the medium of instruction and for teaching basic literacy skills within a multilingual curriculum that also features French and Luxembourgish. This rigid language regime does not accommodate for the various linguistic and educational needs of a highly diverse student population. Indeed, it is a well-documented fact that the Luxembourgish education system and the requirements of its language regime contribute to the reproduction of social stratification. This paper provides a qualitative insight into the experiences and perspectives of primary school students in Luxembourg who navigate this education system, with a focus on German as a school language. It draws on a theoretical framework that combines the notion of the lived experience of language (Busch 2017) with discursive approaches to language policy (Barakos and Unger 2016) to conceptualise the notion of the lived experience of language (education) policy. A thematic analysis of one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 22 primary school students (aged 11-13) reveals that negative views on German, both as the medium of instruction and as a language subject, prevailed among most participants. Many detailed a wide range of negative lived experiences with, and because of, German in the classroom. The findings presented in this paper contribute to broader research on young people’s experiences of language (education) policy in multilingual settings.

Teaching speaking - Att undervisa muntlig språkfärdighet i spanska
Fredrika Nyström

Teaching speaking - Att undervisa muntlig språkfärdighet i spanska Sedan flera decennier har Sveriges läroplan i språk ett tydligt kommunikativt syfte: Språket ska läras in för och genom kommunikation med andra. Enligt Output Hypothesis (Swain, 1995) och Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1996) är såväl egen produktion som interaktion med andra talare avgörande faktorer för språkinlärning. Emellertid behövs ytterligare forskning kring hur dessa teorier konkretiseras i språkklassrummet på grundläggande nivåer. Detta avhandlingsprojekt studerar hur och när elever i årskurs nio talar spanska på spansklektionerna. Genom att spela in lektioner med film och ljud samt intervjua lärare och elever kartläggs när och hur eleverna talar eller inte talar spanska. Fokus ligger på målspråkets kommunikativa användning. Som ett första analyssteg i projektet granskas hur muntlig produktion och interaktion beskrivs av lärare, elever och styrdokument. Vilka teman verkar stå i förgrund hos spansklärarna och hur förhåller sig dessa teman till de didaktiska frågorna Vad, Hur och Vem? Referenser Long, M. H. (1996). The Role of the Linguistic Environment in Second Language Acquisition. In: Handbook of Second Language Acquisition/editors W. Ritche and T.Bhatia. 413-468. San Diego: Academic Press. Swain, M. H. (2005) The Output Hypothesis:Theory and Research in: Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning/editor E. Hinkel. 471-482 New York: RoutledgeLong, M. H. (1996). The Role of the Linguistic Environment in Second Language Acquisition. In W. Rithcie & T. Bahtia (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 413-468). San Diego Academic Press.

Content and Language Integrated Learning for Languages Other Than English: a proposed pilot in the Northern Ireland policy context
Sarah O'Neill

Language learning is in decline in schools across the UK. Of its four regions, Northern Ireland has the least statutory provision for language education, with a modern language compulsory only for pupils aged 11-14. Moreover, this narrow window appears to be failing: language up-take post-14 is in decline; non-selective schools dedicate less curricular time to languages than academically selective schools, and low-SES pupils are the least likely to continue learning a language post-14. There is an urgent need to rethink traditional approaches to language teaching. This PhD project will compare existing language teaching practice in Northern Ireland with a CLIL approach, using parallel CLIL and non-CLIL classes of pupils aged 11-14 learning a LOTE in mainstream, non-selective schools. The proposal is to integrate language learning and vocational subject content, creating links with local businesses for authentic language use. Lesson content, materials and task design will be developed in collaboration with subject teachers and potentially industry representatives. The intervention will take into account variables such as curricular and extramural language exposure, previous language learning, pupil age and learner profile, in order to investigate the following: - How does the approach (CLIL or non-CLIL) affect learner perceptions of and attitudes towards language learning? - What is the impact on learner motivation to continue with language learning post-14? - What are the views of teachers and policy actors on the policy potential of CLIL? - What are implications for language education policy in Northern Ireland and the wider UK?

Two projects on CLIL in Swedish middle school
Eva Olsson

In Swedish middle school, English is generally studied in foreign language classes for two hours a week. In CLIL classes, English may be encountered and used for up to 50 percent of the school day as the language of instruction in different subjects. However, the effect of CLIL instruction on language and subject knowledge has not yet been explored among young learners in the Swedish context. In this presentation, two recently initiated longitudinal research projects focusing on CLIL in middle school are described. In the first project, four classes (N = 100) of students aged 12-14 are monitored for two years during periods when cross-curricular CLIL projects are implemented. The development of the students’ Swedish and English proficiency is compared to that of 100 non-CLIL students. A further purpose of the project is to identify and develop CLIL-based teaching methods in close cooperation with the teachers. This project is part of a strategic effort by the Swedish government to support of classroom-based research. The second project, funded through The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, is a large-scale, project running over three years aiming at exploring the effects of CLIL on 10-12-year-old learners’ proficiency in Swedish, English and Mathematics. In particular, the interaction between the development in mathematics and language proficiency is in focus here. The study involves 250 students from schools where English is the language of instruction in Mathematics and other subjects up to 50 percent of the time, and 150 students attending regular non-CLIL education.

Potentials for intercultural education in students' interactions in German classes in the lower secondary school in Denmark
Maria Pia Pettersson

For many years, intercultural communicative competence has been a main goal for the teaching of German in the lower secondary school in Denmark. With the Danish School Reform 2014 the interest in the (inter)cultural dimension increases even more. In the meantime, very little research has been conducted into teachers’ and students’ perceptions and practices in German classes. The purpose of the study was to determine what and how potentials for intercultural education emerge from students’ interaction with multimodal teaching materials. Different actors within the area of education were expected to have a considerable impact on student practices in class. This study provides an insight into involving theoretical teaching concepts, education policy documents, semantic and educational learning resources and teachers’ intentions and didactic designs. The observation of student practices could point to a large spread of student interaction patterns with the various mediating resources available. In relation to the development of intercultural competence, student interviews documented potentials. However, they risk to be affected in a negative way because of the lack of initiation of intercultural learning processes. References: Byram, M. (1997).Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Dervin, F. (2016). Interculturality in Education. A Theoretical and Methodological Toolbox. London: Macmillan. Kramsch, C. (2009). The symbolic dimensions of the intercultural. Language Teaching, 354-367. Pettersson, M.-P. (2019). Potentials for intercultural education in pupils’ practices in the German language in the lower secondary school. A study of the tension field between the Germans subject’s theoretical, rhetorical and cultural practice. Odense: SDU. Dissertation

Att bedöma elevers språkförmåga – En studie av bedömares beslutsprocesser i relation till GERS
Maria Håkansson Ramberg

För att kunna undersöka validitet och likvärdighet vid bedömning av elevers språkkunskaper är det angeläget att närmare granska vilka delar av språkförmågan som lyfts fram vid en bedömning och varför. Europarådets referensram för språk, GERS, har på många sätt varit enande för hur språkkunskaper värderas och ligger numera som referenssystem ofta till grund för bedömning, främst inom Europa, men också i andra delar av världen. Även gällande de svenska styrdokumenten föreligger en koppling till GERS, bl.a. mellan det svenska sammanhållna sjustegsystemet för språk (steg 1–7) och de sex referensnivåerna (A1–C2) enligt GERS. Hur bedömare enligt dessa båda system konceptualiserar språkförmåga vid bedömning av inlärares skriftliga produktion och i vilken mån likheter och skillnader kan ses, har däremot sällan undersökts. Studien syftar till att undersöka vilka aspekter av språkförmåga som två bedömargrupper med delvis olika utgångspunkter beaktar i sin bedömning av inlärares texter. Materialet består av för syftet särskilt insamlade elevtexter skrivna av svenska gymnasieelever på stegen 3, 4 och 5 i tyska enligt det svenska stegsystemet. Elevtexterna har bedömts av i) svenska bedömare samt ii) externa GERS-bedömare. De svenska bedömarna har använt svenska nationella kunskapskrav i språk, medan GERS-bedömarna har använt sig av kriterier grundande i GERS. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder har tillämpats för att analysera bedömarnas skriftliga kommentarer till bedömningen. Resultatet av analyserna visar på flera skillnader och likheter mellan de båda bedömargrupperna och jag kommer bl.a. att diskutera möjliga orsaker till dessa.

Anxious to speak or anxious about speaking? Learning to speak English as a foreign language in Poland
Pawe? Scheffler

Speaking is an essential communicative skill and thus a crucial element of L2 education. However, learners’ inhibitions and negative emotions associated with speaking in the classroom, referred to as speaking anxiety, are a serious obstacle to effective L2 learning. Also in Krashen’s language acquisition theory, the role of the affective filter is emphasized – if a language learner feels anxious, the learning will not progress. Recognizing this problem in the context of teaching English as a foreign language in Poland, we implemented a series of discussion sessions in the form of the “five-step motivation method” as part of English instruction in a Polish secondary school. The essence of the approach is that the students identify what is important to them and what hinders them from speaking in a foreign language, and discuss in class possible solutions to obstacles. In this way, the students learn to take responsibility themselves for their own learning and development, and they also support each other to overcome the fear of speaking in a foreign language. Our main focus was on the investigation of anxiety-provoking factors, on the strategies that learners can use in order to overcome speaking anxiety, and on their evaluation of the effectiveness of the sessions. In the presentation, we report on the data elicited through participants’ reflection logs.

Methods for improving EMI lecturers' language use
Joseph Siegel

Unfortunately, many lecturers who teach in English medium instruction (EMI) contexts are unawareof the linguistic challenges English as a foreign language (EFL) students face and the strategiesthey as teachers might utilize to deliver lecture content in EFL-friendly ways. As content lecturers,they often overlook linguistic options available to them when delivering lectures. When EMI lecturersfail to accommodate varying student proficiency levels, learning suffers (e.g., Griffiths & Beretta,1991). There are, however, numerous micro- and macro-strategies (Sheppard, et al., 2015) thatlecturers can apply to strengthen learning in EMI environments. This presentation focuses on the linguistic and pedagogic perspectives that EFL teachers can offerEMI content-based lecturers. It aims to provide a model for improving EMI courses through teachereducation. First, challenges that EFL learners face when listening to EMI lectures will be highlighted,followed by a brief review of research into aspects that affect lecture comprehension. Thepresenters will then describe a workshop they created to help EMI lecturers with varying Englishproficiencies improve their use of English as a teaching tool, make their lectures more accessible toEFL learners, and increase teacher efficacy. Attendees will learn practical methods and workshop-style activities for helping EMI lecturers at their own institutions align their teaching with EFLstudents' needs.

L2 English in vocational study programmes: Comparing teacher and student views
Kaja Granum Skarpaas

In Norway, as in other countries, upper secondary vocational students are required to study a certain number of general subjects, among them English. The presence of so-called theoretical subjects in vocational education has been the object of debate, often centring on their negative effects on student motivation. As a remedy, common core teachers in Norway are required by law to adapt their instruction to the study programmes of their students. In other words, they must plan and deliver lessons with a vocational orientation. In the case of English, a vocational orientation is not only intended to boost motivation, but also to assure that students learn the language skills needed for work. Compared to academic programmes, very little research addresses L2 English instruction in vocational study programmes. Thus, to contribute to a better understanding of such instruction, this paper compares English teachers’ aims and intentions when utilising a vocational orientation to vocational students’ perceptions and desires for their English instruction. The paper uses qualitative data collected (in 2018 and 2019) from an ongoing doctoral research project involving teachers and students in 10 schools in eastern and western parts of Norway. It compares results from teacher and student interviews, and draws on secondary data from classroom observations. The aim of the paper is to address the following research question: “To what extent do teachers and students share a common vision for the vocational orientation of English language instruction in upper secondary vocational study programmes?”.

The role of historical texts in the English language classroom in Norway
Torunn Skjærstad

This paper presents the early stages of a doctoral project on historical texts in English language teaching (ELT). It takes as its point of departure a review of the affordances offered by historical literary texts in ELT and aims to contextualise the term historical literacy. Encountering literary representations of the past has been suggested as a valuable disciplinary history method to use in a language learning setting (Maposa and Wassermann, 2016), and that learning from literature to develop historical literacy may enhance pupils’ literacy skills in general, as well as contribute to the development of citizenship and encourage democratic processes (UN). Studies have found that historical literary texts aid the development of pupils’ literacy in L1 classrooms (see Colacel, 2016; Moje, 2008), but this approach has yet to be extended to ELT. This paper therefore reviews the argument that historical literary texts can develop historical literacy in particular, and literacy s kills in general, in ELT, and that encountering literary representations of the past can make a significant contribution to in-depth learning, cross-curricular teaching and the core elements, important aspects of LK20. Colacel, O. (2016). Teaching the nation: literature and history in teaching English. Messages, Sages and Ages, 3(2), 43-53. Maposa, Marshall, and Johan Wassermann. 2009. Conceptualising historical literacy – a review of the literature. Yesterday and Today 4: 41-66, Moje, E. B. (2008). Foregrounding the Disciplines in Secondary Literary Teaching and Learning: A Call for Change. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52 (2): 96-107.

Overview of CLIL research in Sweden
Liss Kerstin Sylvén

Educational research is important to establish possible pros and cons of certain educational approaches. Research into CLIL around the world abounds, and even though all studies in their own right may be of interest, it is not until such research is carefully contextualized that conclusions about potential effects can be drawn locally. This colloquium, therefore, delves specifically into research on CLIL in Sweden and Norway. The first part of this presentation, focusing on Sweden, concerns early studies, such as Åseskog (1982) and Washburn (1997), whose work set the agenda for later research into CLIL in the Swedish context. The second part goes into some detail in the most recent CLIL research project in Sweden, namely the longitudinal, large-scale, CLISS-project (Content and Language Integration in Swedish Schools, Sylvén, 2019). In the overview, areas of investigation, perspectives taken, methods used, as well as analytical tools and lenses are scrutinized and taken into acc ount in the final section of the presentation, which discusses conclusions drawn based on existing evidence as well as identifies gaps in need of further research. Avenues on how to move forward to make CLIL research in the Scandinavian context as relevant and complete as possible are defined.

Patterns of instruction in Nordic lower secondary language arts – and three related targets of instructional development
Michael Tengberg

Recent educational debate has argued over the advantages of different instructional approaches. In language didactics, inquiry-based and dialogic teaching methods have rendered a long-standing support from research. From a perspective of cognitive science, however, it is argued that current instruction is much too student-centered and ought to provide more teacher-led, structured guidance. Yet reliable empirical evidence of prevalent instruction is scarce, why suggestions for changes of practice may fail to meet real and general needs for development.

The present study investigates patterns of lower secondary language arts instruction in four Nordic countries, and highlight three related and relevant targets of future instructional development. The study draws on data from the Quality in Nordic Teaching (QUINT) project in which language arts instruction from at least ten classrooms (3–4 lessons in each) per country was video-recorded and analyzed using The Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO). The present paper reports prevalent patterns of instruction and uses qualitative analysis from the Swedish dataset to define potentially critical areas of instructional improvement.

Findings of the study show that some patterns of instruction are consistent across countries and classrooms, but they also point to potential systematic differences. In general, language arts instruction across countries provide rather weak instructional scaffolding of students’ language learning, yet, there is little evidence that a student-centered form of teaching dominates. Related to this, three critical areas of development are identified: support for effective group work; modeling and use of language models; and scaffolding the act of interpretation.

Språk som valfria ämnen i svensk grundskola
Jörgen Tholin

Den aktuella studien undersöker den historiska utvecklingen av språkens roll som valfria ämnen i den svenska grundskolan, där andra ämnen är obligatoriska. När enhetsskolan (1949) och senare grundskolan (1962) etablerades i Sverige var tanken att den genom sina ämnen och sitt ämnesinnehåll skulle definiera vad alla svenska barn ”behöver kunna” för att fungera som medborgare i samhället. Utrymmet för valfria ämnen och kurser i grundskolan har därför varit mycket begränsat. På högstadiet har emellertid funnits utrymme för tillval, bland dessa alltid språk förutom engelska. Ibland har eleven också kunnat välja svårare eller lättare kurser i obligatoriska ämnen, t.ex. i engelska. I detta paper granskas tre aspekter av tillvalen med fokus på språktillvalen: 1. hur tillvalssystemet förändrats från 1949 till idag, 2. hur förändringar i tillvalssystem motiverats politiskt och 3. hur eleverna gjort sina val. Studien bygger på textanalyser av riksdagsbeslut och riksdagsdebatter, läroplaner och kursplaner inklusive förarbeten till dessa, utvecklings- och forskningsrapporter, debattartiklar om tillvalssystemet samt statistik från skolmyndigheter. Resultaten visar att två grupper ämnen varit valfria, språk och praktisk-estetiska ämnen. De senare har aldrig motiverats politiskt utan haft sin roll enbart som valmöjlighet för de elever som inte kunnat eller velat läsa språk. Motiven till att språken är valfria har skiftat över tid. Andelen elever som väljer språk är relativt konstant oavsett förändringar i systemet eller politiskt intentioner. Dock har en viss ökning skett de senaste åren. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån utbildningspolitiska och språkpolicyrelaterade aspekter men även med fokus på pedagogiska och samhälleliga implikationer.

The impact of language teachers’ topicalizations in two Facebook group
Sylvi Vigmo

Social network sites as sites for empirical research have received a lot of attention, for learning and teaching in general but also more specifically for learning and teaching languages. What has been given less attention, however, are the didactic norms underpinning what resources are center-staged by teachers, and the impact on members’ languaging. The overarching question is to investigate teachers’ didactic topicalization of resources and how these play out among the members in two FB groups. This study investigates two Facebook groups as contrasting examples of learning Swedish as an additional language. Both FB groups aim at targeting the specific need by immigrants to learn a new language, Swedish. Both FB groups have no explicit connection to formal schooling as in curricula, and are framed as an extended space for learning and for practicing Swedish. These particular two FB groups were identified as approaching their aims from divergent positionings; one with interes ts in the national curricula for studying Swedish as a new language, and the other emphasizing the practice of a new language situated in everyday life. After receiving teachers’ consent, data were scraped during a limited time frame of two months. Scraping web data from these FB groups is seen as multilayered, and a methodological approach intertwined with the analysis. Findings are critically discussed regarding how different didactic topicalizations, implicitly underpinned by curricula norms or as departing from emergent issues contextualized in everyday life and their impact on members’ evolving languaging.

Examining adult learners’ use of WhatsApp for language learning purposes
Dimitrios Vogiatzis

The sheer popularity of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) has led many scholars to view them as tools that can potentially facilitate language learning. Although a lot of research has been done on the use of SNSs in Higher Education, there is limited evidence on the impact of SNSs in adult education. This paper draws on a study that investigates the efficacy of WhatsApp use in adult language learning with an aim to examine its affordances and constraints. Following a case study design, pre- and post-questionnaires, online observations, and semi-structured interviews were used to elicit data for the study. Participants were adult learners of German in a community college in the UK, who were using WhatsApp over a period of 22 weeks. This paper places attention on the ways in which members of the group interact (or not) with each other by studying a succession of communicative events. The findings suggest that WhatsApp can afford synchronous (near synchronous), asynchronous and/or diach ronic communication, while its archived nature can enable learners to access previous chat entries retrospectively and decipher what other users had shared without temporal constraints. Nevertheless, the analysis points to learners’ reactive participation and limited interaction, which will be further discussed in this paper. This study offers an empirically evidenced account of the extent to which WhatsApp can be used as a means of facilitating participants’ language learning interactions in adult education settings, emphasising that the mere use of WhatsApp cannot guarantee language interaction among participants.

Advanced literacy in the academic written production of multilingual users of Swedish and Spanish. Cross-linguistic influence.
Rakel Österberg, Alejandra Donoso Alarcón and Enrique Sologuren Insúa

This paper discusses how advanced literacy in academic writing relates to linguistic background in a group of multilingual students enrolled in Spanish studies at university level. Three types of multilingual students are identified: those who have grown up with Spanish at home in Sweden, heritage language (HL) learners, those who have learned Spanish after acquiring Swedish, L2 learners, and those who have Spanish as a L1 and Swedish as a L2. All are considered multilingual speakers. Important to stress is, however, the fact that the students may not have been acquainted with academic writing in Spanish sufficiently, and that several aspects of this type of writing may have been accomplished in the languages they have received more instruction on. This study aims at high-lightening cross-linguistic effects among multilinguals in order to explain some of the main traits of their writing. To what degree do the students adapt to Spanish and Swedish writing conventions? Do the HL Spanish speakers exhibit the same kind of writing patterns as Spanish L2 speakers? The written productions under study are final degree projects .The participants are university students: Spanish HL speakers, n=25; Spanish L2 speakers (Swedish L1), n=25 and Spanish natives, n=25. In order to investigate the features that the different groups display in academic writing, a non-experimental comparative study was performed in which the analytical categories of intertextuality management, information structure, syntactic complexity and text-binding were measured. The results show similar results for the HL and L2 speakers. The HL speakers texts share features of oral speech to a higher extent than the other groups and the text-binding functions are expressed by paratactic structure and paraphrasing.

Tailored learning materials versus the World Wide Web: a multimodal analysis of text sources for the subject of English in upper secondary school
Sigrid Ørevik

Since the 1990s, subject curricula for English in Norwegian upper secondary education have increasingly moved away from prescribed learning materials and text genres. Any form of representation, expression and interaction in English may thereby function as a source of learning in the subject. Equipped with personal laptops and Internet access in their day-to-day schoolwork, students in Norwegian schools have a virtually endless reservoir of text sources at their disposal. This has not led to a complete removal of ‘analogue’ materials, however. In many English classrooms, printed textbooks tailored to subject and age level are still used alongside digitally mediated materials, requiring students of English to navigate a range of disparate text sources in their work with curricular topics. Research-based knowledge of this variety of texts is scant, and the aim of the present paper is to contribute in this regard. The paper presents a multimodal analysis of texts samples from con ventional, tailored materials on the one hand and ‘non-pedagogical’ texts from the Internet on the other, based on Multimodal Social Semiotics and Critical Literacy as main theoretical frameworks. Among salient findings are a number of inherent differences between the two categories of text sources in the way they represent curricular topics and initiate interaction with the reader, differences which potentially influence their affordances for learning in the subject of English.

Published June 1, 2021 3:00 PM - Last modified June 14, 2021 10:46 AM