This systematic review is aimed at identifying malleable moderators of the association between students' socioeconomic status (SES) or immigrant background and educational outcomes. These moderating factors may increase or reduce/compensate the effect of students' SES or immigrant background on their educational outcomes. We focus on the malleable factors since they may be altered by targeted educational policies and stakeholders at the country, school, and classroom level. Such malleable factors include, but are not limited to curricular changes, school climate, teaching practices, student motivation, or parental involvement in homework. Overall, we aim to investigate the malleable moderating mechanisms of educational equity and equality by systematically reviewing publications from 1965 to 2022 that use different types of empirical data. To our knowledge, this is the first research synthesis that aims to provide an overview of factors that mitigate and exacerbate educational inequalities from kindergarten up to the 12th grade around the globe.