Educational Management: Aspects Influencing Learning (EMAIL) (completed)

About the project

EMAIL was a research project (2010- 2015) located at the Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, but the project also involves partners at the Department of Political Science. The aim of the project are three-fold:

  • to generate knowledge about managerial aspects influencing learning (in a broad sense) in education

  • to provide scientifically based knowledge to serve policy makers, administrators, and school professionals

  • to contribute to an internationally oriented scientific knowledge base for the study of educational management and the aspects influencing learning

The paramount goal of the research projects was to further our understanding of the nature of social practice among school professionals. The EMAIL project conducted in the first phase investigations in three different fields of education: (1) secondary schools, (2) adult education for immigrants, and (3) folk high schools. Special attention is given to comparisons of these fields in order to discuss the influence of the strength of accountability devices. In doing so, the researchers integrate several strands of research regarding the relationship between employees and their respective organizations: (1) theory on relational trust among school professionals, (2) literature on employee-organization relationship or human resource management (HRM), and (3) literature on accountability mechanisms. The project was funded by University of Oslo and VOX.

Key words: educational management; education governance; accountability: organizational citizenship behaviour; school academic press in teaching; human resource management.


International published in peer reviewed journals

Turmo, A., Christophersen, K.A., Elstad, E. & Geppert, C. (2015). Prädiktoren der Lehrerinnenverantwortung. Bildungsforschung, bd. 1. 1- 27.

Christophersen, K.A, Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2015). Organizational factors influencing teachers’ inner sense of affective commitment to their schools in high- and low-accountability environments, International Journal of Management in Education, 9 (1), 111-128.

Turmo, A, Christophersen,K.A.&  Elstad, E. (2013). Organizational determinants of teacher responsibility and engagement among adult educators in Norway. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 52(52), 125- 136.

Christophersen, K.A, Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2013). Antecedents of teachers’ fostering of student effort in Norwegian folk high schools. Nordic Studies in Education, 40 (3), 204-215.

Elstad, E, Christophersen, K.A. & Turmo, A. (2013). Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Educators in Language Education for Adult Immigrants in Norway. Adult Education Quarterly, 63 (1), 78 - 96.DOI 10.1177/0741713611429386.

Turmo, A , Elstad, E. &  Christophersen, K.A. (2013). Organisational antecedents of teachers’ perceived time capacity to energise effort: A Norwegian study. Education Inquiry, 4, (2), pp. 335–353.

Christophersen, K.A, Elstad, E, & Turmo, A. (2012). Antecedents of teachers’ fostering of students’ effort within two different management regimes: an assessment-based accountability regime and regime without external pressure on results. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 7 (6), 1-14.

Elstad, E, Christophersen, K.A. & Turmo, A. (2012). The Influence of Parents and Teachers on the Deep Learning Approach of Pupils in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(1), 35-56.


Elstad, E, Christophersen, K.A.  & Turmo, A. (2012). Exploring antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviour among teachers at Norwegian folk high schools. Studies in Continuing Education, 34(2),175-190.

Elstad, E, Christophersen, K.A.  & Turmo, A. (2012). The Influence of Teacher Skills on Pupil Volition in Science Learning: A Norwegian Investigation of the Studying Behaviours of 16-year-olds. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 39, 30-41.

Elstad, E, Christophersen, K.A.  & Turmo, A. (2012). Investigating school-wide antecedents of good practice dissemination from individual subject projects. Research in Education, 87(May), 1-14.

Christophersen, K.A, Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2012). The strength of accountability and teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviour, Journal of Educational Administration, 50 (5), 612 – 628. Translated into Complex Chinese in Journal of Education Research, no. 234 (2013), 107-118.

Elstad, E, Christophersen,K.A. & Turmo, A. (2011). Social Exchange Theory as Explanation of Teacher Organizational Citizenship Behavior. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 14 (4), 405-422.

Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2011). Obeying the rules or gaming the system? Delegating exam sampling to principals within a moderate accountability system. Education, Knowledge & Economy, 4 (4), 1-22.

Christophersen, K.A, Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2011). The nature of social practice among school professionals: consequences for the school academic pressure exerted by teachers in their teaching. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 55(6), 639-654.

Christophersen, K.A. Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2011). Contextual Determinants of School Teaching Intensity in the Teaching of Adult Immigrant Students. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 17 (1), 3-22.


Professional journal articles written for school professionals:

Turmo, A. & Christophersen, K.A. & Elstad, E.  (2013). Hvilke organisatoriske faktorer påvirker læreres indre pliktfølelse? Paideia, 2 (6), 46-57.

Christophersen, Elstad & Turmo (2010) De menneskelige relasjonenes betydning for lærernes ytelse. Bedre skole.Tidsskrift for lærere og skoleledere no. 3,pp. 29-31.

Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are. (2010) Lærernes tidskapasitet til reflektert praksis. Skolelederen 2010 ; no. 4 pp. 15-17.

Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2009) Den menneskelige faktors betydning for skoleutvikling

Bedre skole. Tidsskrift for lærere og skoleledere no 4 pp. 51-55.

Elstad, E. & Turmo, A. (2009) Spredningen av et skoleforbedringsprosjekt. Skolelederen no 7, pp. 10-11


The instruments used in the EMAIL project are explained in detail in chapter 3.2: Hovdenak, SS, Eggen, A.B. & Elstad (2009) Kunnskapsløftet – fra ord til handling. Acta Didactica no 3/2009.

Published Sep. 24, 2010 11:26 AM - Last modified May 2, 2018 3:57 PM