Donolato, Marci, Altoé, Mammarella (2019): Measuring Test Anxiety in Primary and Middle School Children Psychometric Evaluation of the Test Anxiety Questionnaire for Children (TAQ-C)
I: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Online first
Enrica Donolato, Tatiana Marci, Gianmarco Altoé & Irene C. Mammarella.
The increasing use of tests to assess academic competences has been associated with higher levels of test anxiety (TA) in children, underlining the importance of identifying this emotional problem and sustain academic achievement. This study aimed to contribute to the extant literature on the assessment of TA by examining the psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Questionnaire for Children (TAQ-C), in primary and middle school children. In Study 1 (N = 123), we selected 24 items from a wider initial pool, dividing them into scales measuring Thoughts, Autonomic Reactions, Off-Task Behaviors, and Social Derogation, to develop the TAQ-C. In Study 2 (N = 899), the psychometric properties of this set of scales were assessed in students attending primary and middle school. Analyses supported the bifactor latent structure of the TAQ-C, invariance across educational levels and gender, concurrent and convergent validity, and test–retest reliability. Overall, the TAQ-C is a promising tool for assessing TA in primary and middle school students. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.