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Evaluation of bilingual Training Opportunities in Schools (ETOS)

ETOS is a research and evaluation project that follows students in international bilingual classes at grades 8, 9 and 10 over time (2011-2022). The Department of Teacher Education and School Research at the University of Oslo collaborates with lower secondary schools to understand how they take responsibility for languages. 

Students sitting in a staircase

(Photo: Colourbox)

Report 1

Read the first ETOS report about bilingual training in lower secondary schools (in Norwegian): Brevik & Doetjes et al. (2020). Tospråklighet på fagenes premisser  [Bilingualism on the subjects' premises] (pdf). University of Oslo.

The ETOS project aims to increase our knowledge of bilingual education, which is instructed partly in Norwegian and partly in English. ETOS will consider student motivation, learning outcomes, and perceived relevance across individual subjects. ETOS also evaluates whether bilingual instruction in religion, science, mathematics, social studies, English, Norwegian and foreign languages are performed to a satisfactory standard. The evaluation considers both language and content aspects of the instruction.

When evaluating language aspects of the bilingual training, we shall examine the English and Norwegian language use across the aforementioned subjects. We also examine language use in foreign language subjects (German and Urdu). In addition, we investigate multilingualism amongst students and teachers. When evaluating content aspects of bilingual instruction, we examine how students' language resources are activated in subjects such as religion, mathematics, science and social studies. 


In 2017, the Directorate for Education and Training decided that any school wishing to offer bilingual training opportunities must request a deviation from the Education Act § 1-5. Bilingual education is known in Norway and  internationally by different names, including Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), International Baccalaureate (IB), International Bilingual Classes (IBC), International Programme (IP), and Bilingual and Immersion Education (BIE).


The participating schools have offered lower secondary students bilingual training opportunities for the past five to ten years. The schools have applied for and been approved to conduct trials for 2019–2022. The project's objective is to evaluate:  

  • if students have developed a high level of competence in English
  • if bilingual education provides increased adapted education
  • if bilingual education contributes to increased learning outcome in all subjects 
  • if bilingual education contributes to increased motivation in all subjects
  • if bilingual education contributes to increased perceived relevance for further education and work
  • if students demonstrate understanding of Norway from an international perspective

To draw robust inferences related to these objectives, we will analyse historical data in addition to data collected in the current school year. We will use both quantitative and qualitative data that include lesson plans, interviews and questionnaires directed at school leaders, teachers, students and parents. We will also use longitudinal student results and video recorded lesson observations. 


Department of Teacher Education and School Research conduct the evaluation part of the project as an assignment from the Oslo Municipal educational officer and Bærum Municipality for 2019-2022.

Tags: Bilingual education, student motivation
Published Nov. 18, 2019 9:57 AM - Last modified May 23, 2021 3:26 PM