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Evaluation of bilingual Training Opportunities in Schools (ETOS)

ETOS is a research and evaluation project that follows students in international bilingual classes at grades 8, 9 and 10 over time. 

Students sitting in a staircase

(Photo: Colourbox)


About the project

The ETOS project aims to increase our knowledge of bilingual education, which is instructed partly in Norwegian and partly in English across subjects, in addition to students' and teachers' perspectives on bilingual education. The participating schools have offered bilingual education in lower secondary school since 2011/2014. They have been granted a trial throughout the school year 2020–21.

ETOS evaluates whether bilingual instruction in religion and ethics, science, mathematics, social studies, English, Norwegian and foreign languages are performed to a satisfactory standard. The project also considers how student motivation, learning outcomes, and perceived relevance across individual subjects. The evaluation considers both language and content aspects of the instruction.

In the school year 2021-22, to finalise the project, we plan to collect data from oral and written exams in Year 10  in addition to teacher interviews. 


In 2017, the Directorate for Education and Training decided that any school wishing to offer bilingual training opportunities must request a deviation from the Education Act § 1-5. Bilingual education is known in Norway and  internationally by different names, including Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), International Baccalaureate (IB), International Bilingual Classes (IBC), International Programme (IP), and Bilingual and Immersion Education (BIE).


The project's objective is to evaluate:  

  • if students have developed a high level of competence in English
  • if bilingual education provides increased adapted education
  • if bilingual education contributes to increased learning outcome in all subjects 
  • if bilingual education contributes to increased motivation in all subjects
  • if bilingual education contributes to increased perceived relevance for further education and work
  • if students demonstrate understanding of Norway from an international perspective

To draw robust inferences related to these objectives, we analyse data longitudinally. This includes quantitative and qualitative data: lesson plans (documents), observation of classroom instruction (video recording) and assessment situations (audio recording), Experience with bilingual instruction (interview and survey among students and teachers), motivation for bilingual instruction (application and survey among students and parents), in addition to students' results (grades and reading tests). 


Read the ETOS report about bilingual training in lower secondary schools (in Norwegian): Brevik & Doetjes et al. (2020). Tospråklighet på fagenes premisser  [Bilingualism on the subjects' premises] (pdf). University of Oslo. The report builds on the following: 

  • The school year 2019-20 we observed teaching in six classes in Year 8-10 at two schools. We collected information about the bilingual instruction among students, teachers, and parents, including documents, grades and test results.
  • When evaluating content aspects of bilingual instruction, we examined how students' language resources were activated in subjects such as religion and ethics, mathematics, science and social studies. 
  • We evaluated language aspects of the bilingual instruction, in the language subjects English, Norwegian language arts, German and Urdu, including multilingualism amongst students and teachers.
  • We compared the observed bilingual teaching with main areas in the curriculum. 


Department of Teacher Education and School Research is funded by Oslo Municipal educational officer and Bærum Municipality for the period 2019-2022.

Tags: Bilingual education, student motivation
Published Nov. 18, 2019 9:57 AM - Last modified Oct. 31, 2021 9:16 AM